Etymological landscapes

Many place names survive from the early middle ages and from even earlier. The spelling may have changed but the roots are still identifiable.

In a lot of cases the names of settlements include a personal name, presumably the most important person – mostly male, but sometimes female*. Other place names describe the location using the visible landscape topography and identifiable natural environment features, and also indicate the worth of the land being described i.e. whether it is fertile or not, whether it has been cleared for agriculture. People and personal names have changed but where a settlement or location is named after its topography or a nearby habitat it can still be possible to see why today where these features still exist a thousand years later.

Old Celtic/British
These kind of place names are rare on the eastern side of England because this is where the Anglo-Saxon and Viking forays and then annexations began, securing their footholds and establishing new settlements before entrenching. So it is more often features, in particular rivers, rather than settlements that have an Old British name.

North York Moors examples:
Glais(dale) – small stream, or grey/blue/green
River Esk – water
River Derwent – river where oaks are common
River Dove – black, dark
River Rye – hill, ascent

Upper reaches of the River Rye. Copyright NYMNPA.

Roman
The Roman Empire in the British Isles reached the North York Moors and beyond. Roman features like forts and roads which were few and far between are described in subsequent Old English place names elsewhere, but not so much in the North York Moors.

Old English (Anglo-Saxon, Anglian)
North York Moors examples:
Personal names such as Beage* (Byland), Broc (Broxa), Ecga (Egton), Helm (Helmsley), Poca (Pockley).
Ampleforth – a ford where sorrel grows
Cawthorn – a cold place with hawthorn trees
Goathland – good land (surrounded by the barren moorland)
Hackness – a hook shaped headland around which a river flows
Lealholm – small island where willows grow
River Riccal, tributary of the River Rye – calf of the River Rye or little Rye
Ruswarp – silted land where brushwood grows

River Esk at Lealholm. COPYRIGHT CHRIS CEASER.

Norse (Viking, Scandinavian)
North York Moors examples:
Personal names such as Asulfr (Aislaby), Bolti (Boltby), Rudda* (Rudland), Thymill (Thimbleby), Uggi (Ugthorpe).
Ellerbeck – a stream next to alder trees or woodland
Fangdale – valley with a river for fishing
Hesketh – a race course
Laskill – the location of a hut, possibly with abundant lichen
Lythe – a hillside, a slope
Sleights – a level field
Upsall – a high homestead or hall

The basic rule of thumb is that if a settlement name ends in –by (farmstead, village) it is from the Norse, and if it ends in –ton or –ham (enclosure, farmstead, village, manor, estate) it is from the Old English. Another frequent Old English place name ending is –ley or –ly meaning a clearing and then later, when more established, a pasture.

Sometimes there is no question about the origin of a place name, for example Danby is very clearly connected to the Vikings – it means a settlement of Danes. But there were often Norse settlements alongside Anglo-Saxon settlements as the populations fluctuated, adjusted and integrated over time. Many places names were hybridized, adapted and amalgamated e.g.
Kirby Knowle – village with a church (Norse), below a knoll/small round hill (Old English)
Ingleby Greenhow – village on a hill (Norse) which is green and belongs to the Angles/English (Old English)
Scugdale – valley with Goblins (Scandinavianized Old English)

There are common words still used in the north of England such as beck (Norse) for a stream, rig or rigg (Norse) for a ridge, mire (Norse) for a bog, and dale (Old English) for a valley. Moor is an Old English word for an unproductive marsh or barren upland area.

Old French (Norman) – unlike the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings who came with populations that were then settled and absorbed, the Norman invasion was more of a baronial take over so Norman names mainly occur around seats of power demarcating property and patronage.

North York Moors examples:
Rievaulx – valley of the River Rye, is close by Helmsley Castle which belonged to the De Roos family.
Grosmont – big hill, an off shoot monastery named after the mother house at Grosmont in France.

Where settlements now include ‘le’ in their names, this is sometimes a modern addition and doesn’t necessarily indicate a Norman/French connection.

Rievaulx Abbey and Village. Copyright NYMNPA.

Then there are newer, more obvious names with recognisable descriptive (Middle and then Modern English) words and connotations like Black Moor, Cold Moor, Littlebeck, Sandsend, Church Houses, Low Mill. Sometimes however what seems obvious is not necessarily so. The name Rosedale probably isn’t to do with roses at all, it’s more likely to be about horses (hross is the Old Norse word for horse). Robin Hood is a generic name for a thief, so Robin Hood’s Bay might be more to do with its excellent location for smuggling, rather than a connection to THE Robin Hood.

Roof tops at Robin Hood's Bay. COPYRIGHT MIKE KIPLING.

With thanks to the Concise Oxford  Dictionary of English Place-Names

The Chemistry of Buildings

Building Conservation Team

The Building Conservation team at the National Park have a vested interest in keeping the area’s traditional buildings in good repair so as to maintain and secure this particular element of the North York Moors’ special qualities. We have a new Advice Note on using lime mortars, the rudiments of which are explained below.

Most buildings in the North York Moors were traditionally constructed using stone and lime mortars (to bind the stonework together), often with earth and rubble filled cores. Lime was used for bedding and pointing the stonework and for rendering. Rendering with mortar was used to cover poorer-quality masonry underneath or to make a building more weather proof, for example on the coast. Most historic buildings were constructed from materials found locally and this contributes to what is distinctive about the ‘local vernacular’.

When it comes to repairing a surviving traditional building it is important to understand how they work. These buildings are usually of simple construction and built using breathable materials. Bricks and stone are bonded with flexible and permeable mortars made of lime and sand which allow the building to ‘breathe’. When it rains moisture is absorbed into the external surface but is then able to evaporate through the more porous pointing or render. Using a lime based mortar or render for repairs nowadays means that this process can continue.

In contrast modern cement mortars and renders along with plastic paints, waterproof sealants and damp-proof courses all act as barriers to a traditional wall’s natural ability to breathe. The trapping of moisture within permeable materials like stone can exacerbate the very problems these products are trying to resolve. The use of cement-based mortars can have a significant negative visual (photo below left) and physical impact on traditional historic buildings. The photo below (right) shows the extent of stone decay caused by the use of a cement mortar. Because the cement is much harder than the stone, moisture cannot evaporate through the joints and instead evaporates through the stone causing it to ‘weather away’ through premature erosion.

You can usually tell what type of mortar has been used most recently; cement based mortars tend to be dark grey and hard in appearance and texture whereas lime based mortars are generally lighter and softer in appearance and texture. Because they allow the surrounding masonry to dry out the colour of the stone will also lighten.

There are a number of different types of lime mortars/renders. Replacing like for like is important.

Non-hydraulic lime is the raw material produced when limestone (calcium carbonate) is fired, often called ‘quicklime’ (calcium oxide). It is sold in a slaked form (with water) as lime putty which is then mixed with an aggregate (e.g. sand) to produce mortars and plasters. These putty limes possess good breathability and flexibility and are ideal for use with soft porous materials allowing the maximum permeability.

Hydraulic lime comes in powdered form and will start to set as soon as it comes into contact with water. It is ideal for use in wet or very exposed situations or where there is a need for a higher compressive strength or a quick set. Hydraulic limes come in a variety of strengths e.g. NHL2, NHL3.5 and NHL5 – the higher the number the less flexibility and breathability the mortar will have.

Hydrated or bagged lime is a form of non-hydraulic lime which is sold as a powder. It is sold by builders’ merchants as an additive for cement mixes in order to give modern cement mixes more plasticity and workability. It is generally considered to be inferior to lime putty, not least because an unknown proportion will have reacted with carbon dioxide and set by the time it reaches the site.

Hot-mixed lime is made when quicklime is mixed with water and aggregate simultaneously. The vast majority of historic lime mortars were probably hot-mixed. There are several benefits of using a hot-lime mortar: it can produce cleaner work as there is less leaching, it has a easily-workable elasticity which produces solid and full joints, it appears to be more breathable and therefore more compatible with stonework, and it has potential for use in colder weather notwithstanding the requirement for protection from freezing during the curing (setting) process.

A standard pointing mix consists of a lime mortar mix of 1:2½ lime:sand (sand mix of 50% sharp sand and 50% builders sand) for a slightly recessed bagged finish. However there may be times when a bespoke mix is required such as when different colour sand is needed to match existing historic mortar.

Repointing is only needed where mortar has become loose, decayed or eroded to an extent that water has started to penetrate the joints. If the mortar is firm or so hard that it needs to be chiselled out then it is best to leave it in place as removal could damage the masonry. The repointing of delicate ashlar joints (made out of worked stone) is not generally advisable as the joints are so fine that getting old pointing out can lead to irreversible damage of the masonry.

If repointing is necessary joints should be carefully raked out manually or by non-electric tools (no angle grinders) to a depth equal to one and half times the width of the joint and never less than 35 mm. Great care must be taken to keep the edges of the stone intact and joints should never be widened. Work should not be carried out when there is a danger of frost or heavy rain (this is less important when using a hot lime mix). Mortar must be protected from drying out too quickly from wind, rain and frost by protecting the area. Rain must never be allowed to strike the mortar and stonework until the setting process is complete.

The mortar should be stippled as the initial set takes place, with a stiff bristle brush, to produce a textured appearance capable of shedding water and slightly set back from the stone outer surface to ensure the full arris (edge) of each stone shows clearly in relief.

The photo below (left) illustrates a good lime mortar mix and pointing method. The aggregate used in the mix has been exposed by brushing back the pointing to a recessed finish which allows the stone to be the dominant feature. The other photo below (right) shows historic pointing on an old outbuilding where roof tiles were used to fill in larger gaps between the stones, adding to its particular character and appearance.

If you need further information, or advice on sources of materials, or any clarification regarding the need for listed building consent or planning permission before re-pointing or rendering a traditional building, get in touch with our Building Conservation Team.

Trail news

Aside

The Cleveland Way is a National Trail which, for a large part, runs along the edges of the North York Moors showing off the landscapes and vistas of the area. It even has its own volunteer correspondent – Trail Reporter Dave Greenwood – and you can see his latest post here.

The Cleveland Way running through the Cleveland Hills - http://www.nationaltrail.co.uk/cleveland-way

Making a contribution

Over the years the National Park have had a number of grant initiatives allowing us to provide grant to support projects that help achieve National Park purposes and duties and to conserve the special qualities of the North York Moors. Some of our grant schemes tend to be targeted which means we usually approach the land manager and offer the grant (for instance, to enhance habitat connectivity), and others are open to application and awarded through a competitive process.

So at the beginning of a new financial year with a new round of grants available, it’s these schemes, the ones generally open to application, which are described below.

Our Traditional Boundary Scheme provides grant assistance (up to a maximum of £2,000 per holding per year) towards the cost of rebuilding drystone walls* and plantingDerelict hedge - copyright NYMNPATBS hedge planting - copyright NYMNPA/restoring hedgerows. Traditional field boundaries are an important cultural element and landscape feature of the North York Moors. They also act as effective wildlife corridors. For more information – contact us.

Collapsed drystone walling - copyright NYMNPA

TBS restored drystone walling - copyright NYMNPA

There are lots of historic buildings in the National Park which are of great value both in terms of the landscape and cultural heritage, so we want to help ensure that as many as possible are kept in good repair. Around 3,000 buildings are specifically listed for their special architectural or historic interest. Historic Building Grants are available for Head House, before repair - copyright NYMNPAHistoric Building Grant - Head House, after repair - copyright NYMNPArepairs to Listed Buildings on the Authority’s “at risk” register. Grants are 50% of the cost of eligible works, up to a maximum of £7,500.

 

There are also 42 Conservation Areas in the National Park. These are areas within villages which have been designated because they are of particular historic or Modern downstairs window - Robin Hood's Bay - copyright NYMNPAConservation Area Enhancement Grant - downstairs window replaced, in keeping with historic character - Robin Hood's Bay - copyright NYMNPAarchitectural importance. Conservation Area Enhancement Grants are available for re-instating lost architectural features such as windows and doors and using traditional roofing materials on historic buildings, within Conservation Areas. Grants will be 50% of the cost of eligible works, up to £1,500 per project.

For more information on either of these two Building Conservation grants – see here.

Our Local Distinctiveness & Tourism Fund aims to raise the profile of the North York Moors and promote its local distinctiveness. Grants are awarded to projects in the National Park area and surroundings which increase awareness of the North York Moors brand. Ideas need to utilise the area’s local distinctiveness and at the same time ensuring that any increase in visitors has no adverse impacts. For more information – see here.

We’ve also got our Community Grant offering grant of up to £3,500 (up to 70% of total project costs) to local community groups for small scale projects which meet one of the following priorities:

    • environmental benefits e.g. recycling project or wildlife habitat improvements;
    • cultural heritage and local history conservation e.g. restoring a village monument or archiving data;
    • community facility improvements e.g. disabled access for a community building or improvements to a play area.

Projects need to show clear community benefit and value for money. This particular grant has a short application window – for 2016/17 we need to receive applications by 30 June 2016. For more information – see here.

The Community Grant is now into its fourth year. We’ve assisted a variety of functional  projects over that time, one of which was the setting up of the Farndale Film Club by providing grant towards the purchase of equipment. We’re very grateful to the Club for the following report on its first year which shows just how beneficial local community projects can be with just a little grant assistance.

Farndale Village Hall Report for North York Moors National Park

Grant awarded summer 2014 for Film Club equipment and costs – £2,791.60

Farndale Village Hall - copyright Farndale Village Hall CommitteeThe Village Hall committee were very pleased to be awarded the grant to enable us to start our own community Film Club. The equipment and licences were bought in the early part of 2015, and installed by a community member with technical, IT and audio-visual expertise, and one of our trustees who is a qualified electrician and computer expert.

Our first screening was on the 1st May 2015. The film was ‘What we did on our holidays’ – a British comedy, which was a real success. We had 24 people attending, and had organised refreshments, crisps and chocolate bars. Feedback from attendees was excellent. The blackout blinds worked really well in summer to keep the hall dark. The sound system was great, and the big screen made it feel as though you really were at the cinema!

We decided to hold monthly screenings. Information about the screenings is given in our member’s community newsletter, on an email circular, and on posters inside the hall. Members are regularly asked what films they might want to see and all suggestions are welcome.

Farndale Film Club - copyright Farndale Village Hall CommitteeWe have had a wide range so far of films, including comedies, a western and recent films like Gravity and The Imitation Game. We have held eight general monthly film nights for members, which have had 142 individual attendances.

We also held a screening of a new independent film ‘Addicted to Sheep’ in October. This was a licensed film and we were able to publicise and promote the screening, and charge for attendance. We decided to charge £3.00, really just to cover the costs of the film (£150). We also sold ice creams, snacks and drinks. Overall at this film, we had 60 people attending, and contributed over £100 towards our 1st year costs. Everyone who came said they had had a really good evening.

The Farndale Kids Club is also taking advantage of the equipment, and so far have shown three films – ‘Paddington’ in June; ‘Hotel Transylvania’ at a Halloween party in October, and ‘Elf’ in December. The children had a brilliant time. At these films we had overall attendance of 71. The children made themselves comfortable on rugs and cushions on the floor, and had ice creams and snacks.

So overall, we have held three films for the Kids Club, eight films for the usual members club, and held an ‘open’ screening. Overall attendance of the 12 films has been 273.

In the summer, we made another grant application to the Two Ridings Community Foundation – Grassroots Fund towards funding for some more comfortable seating, and were pleased to have the grant agreed in September. We have since purchased 30 new upholstered and padded chairs for use at the film club, and so far members have been very pleased with them. They are a big improvement on the old plastic chairs we had.

Farndale Film Club - copyright Farndale Village Hall Committee

Since we started, we have covered the overall equipment and first year’s costs of the Film Club – largely through your grant, also the income from our recycling Bags Collection, from members’ donations, and through snacks and soft drinks donations at the screenings.

All the people who have so far come to the Farndale Film Club and Kids Film Club have been very positive about having a local venue where they can see films. Comments have been made about how good it is not to have to travel miles to see films, and also how nice it is to spend time with neighbours and friends in a different arena. For some of us, it is the only time we have been to a cinema in many years! Thank you again for your generous grant, it is much appreciated by all.

Gill Aconley, Committee Member, Farndale Village Hall

James Thurtell, Chairman, Farndale Village Hall

*And talking of film, our Agri-Environment Team spent a few hours recently learning the basics of drystone walling in order to better understand this traditional craft. Here’s what happened…

Agri-Environment Team endlessly practising drystone walling at Sutton Bank - copyright NYMNPA

Sea Life, See Life: coastal heritage

Gareth Dockerty – Sea Life, See Life Project Coordinator

We’re currently running the ‘Sea Life, See Life’ project, which is funded through the Coastal Communities Fund. Our project includes a number of heritage restoration and cultural enhancement schemes in the village of Robin Hood’s Bay, working with the local community and Parish Council.

Lanterns

Victorian style metal lantern - Robin Hood's Bay. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project. Modern urban plastic lantern - Robin Hood's Bay. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.We’ve replaced eight street lanterns around the village, removing modern urban plastic lights for ‘Victorian style’ lanterns with modern LED down lighting to limit light pollution. The lantern pattern is unique to the village and is modelled on the original Victorian lantern at the old railway station. Where possible the existing wall brackets or fittings have been restored.

Standpipes and water fountains

We’ve also commissioned the replacement and renovation of some of the village’s other local gems from standpipes to water fountains. Up until the start of the 20th century water was collected daily from standpipes and water fountains located around the village. The project has funded the re-installation of a Victorian water fountain in an original location along with the refurbishment of standpipes and has erected small metal plaques that let visitors know about the heritage significance of such features.

The original fountain as it once stood was removed decades ago. The fountain nowReplacement fountain to be installed. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.The original water fountain in situ in Robin Hood's Bay. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project. installed is a genuine Victorian fountain similar to the original. Generously bought and renovated by a local resident it was installed in full working order by CCF funding and will be looked after by the Parish Council to ensure future generations get to admire it within the streetscape.

It is not the intention to preserve the village in the Victorian era; the style of the lanterns and the fountain and standpipes add to the visual character of the village which is valued by both locals and visitors.

RNLI donation fish

As previously reported on this Blog, Robin Hood’s Bay is the proud location of the oldest known RNLI donation box, in the form of an impressive cast iron cod fish. It has stood in the same place for over a century accepting donations, long after the lifeboat has gone. However, sea air and high tides mean it has needed maintenance a number of times over the past few decades. Our project has funded the complete restoration of the fish and associated plaques by a local business who specialise in oil rig and marine corrosion. The fish will once again stand as a testament to the bravery of the RNLI crews past and present, and to those in peril on the sea.

The RNLI donation recepticle in Robin Hood’s Bay has been proudly accepting donations for over a century. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.

Bank Top car park

The project has continued with the piscine theme at Bank Top car park. Anyone who knows Robin Hood’s Bay will be aware that the village contains a long steep bank from the top of the cliffs down to the shore.

The three carved fish posts to be installed at Bank Top car park. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.At the car park our dedicated National Park Coast Volunteers are preparing to install some bollards with a difference. The tired looking posts are being replaced by new locally sourced oak posts, including three carved cod fish, welcoming people to this historic fishing village and linking back to the RNLI fish down the hill.

Volunteers have also installed bike racks in the car park. The lack of suitable bike parking was a priority for the Parish Council.

Seawall Mosaic

The Sea wall today; a blank canvas ready for the new mosaic celebrating Robin Hood’s Bay. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.The current seawall is to be decorated. A 50 metre mosaic installation will hang along a section of the seawall to celebrate ‘the Bay’ through time from the dinosaurs through to the modern day. The mosaic will illustrate landslides and lost houses, smuggling around the wild North Sea, the arrival of the railway and the birth of the bucket and spade holiday destination.

Through suggestion boxes, online surveys and poetry the local community and visitors have shared what the village means to them and how it makes them feel, and what they feel are the most important themes from the past.
This sketch represents the tightknit community within the ‘higgledy-piggledy’ narrow streets and fisherman cottages as the harsh sea erodes the cliffs. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.

 One of the mosaic boards being made - this one illustrates the famous Victorian postcards. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.One of the mosaic boards being made - this one illustrates a Jurassic dinosaur footprint highlighting the regions rich fossil heritage. Image - Sea Life, See Life Project.

There will be over 50 boards in total and the finished artwork will be installed later this year.