Fantastical fungi

Roy McGhie – Conservation Project Assistant

Fungi is found on every environment on the planet and plays a vital part in many ecosystems. They don’t actually belong to either the plant or animal kingdoms, they have their own. Fungi are key decomposers and so are crucial in terms of nutrient cycling. Because fungi don’t photosynthesise like plants (they don’t contain any chlorophyll) they instead rely on absorbing food from their environment to survive. This is why you will often see fungi growing on or around other plant material, living or dead. By decomposing organic plant material, particularly lignin and cellulose that make up the bodies of plants, the locked up carbon, nitrogen and minerals are released and used again by other plants and organisms.

Fungi often form important symbiotic relationships with other organisms. These can be antagonistic (injurious to the host e.g Hymenoscyphus fraxineus), mutualistic (mutually beneficial) or commensal (apparently neither injurious nor beneficial). One of the most well-known mutualistic relationships is that with mycorrhizal fungi. It is estimated that over 90% of all plant species are part of a mycorrhizal relationship and are dependent on it to thrive. Mycorrhizae are found between plant roots and the soil, and help other plants collect moisture and nutrients (such as nitrate and phosphate). In return the mycorrhizae are able to use the carbohydrates and sugars that the plants produce. It has been suggested that a single oak tree can have up to 19km of associated mycelium – these are the thread-like hyphae (filaments) that extend outwards from the mycorrhizal fungi.

For most fungi these hyphae are their main part. Even when these hyphae tangle together and are visible to the human eye we often don’t see them because they’re underground or within their food source e.g. a tree. Some fungi however produce fruiting bodies in order to release spores – these are the mushroom parts which appear when it’s warm and damp. The mushroom parts are short lived and die back within a season but fungi can live for years and years.

The North York Moors hosts a great variety of fungi types and their mushrooms, from waxcaps, inkcaps and milkcaps to chanterelles, boletes and russulas. Because of the amount of plant material available woodlands, particularly ancient woodlands, are an excellent place to see mushrooms in the late summer/autumn and some varieties in the spring. To encourage fungi on your own land leave deadwood where it is (either standing or on the ground) instead of clearing it away. Managed grasslands are also a good habitat to find mushrooms. Waxcaps in particular can be found on grassland around historic houses and churchyards, and also on grazed pastures. The best grassland fungi sites typically have a short turf, plenty of moss, are well drained, poor in nutrients and usually unfertilised. Many waxcaps form mutualistic relationships with mosses, so to encourage fungi in your own garden don’t remove the moss.

Over the centuries the hundreds of types of fungi in England have been given graphic common names like ‘Ashen Knight’, ‘Bitter Poisonpie’, ‘Dead Man’s Fingers’, ‘Dryad’s Saddle’, ‘Flaming Scalycap’, ‘Humpback Brittlegill’, ‘King Alfred’s Cakes’, ‘Mealy Bigfoot Webcap’, ‘Old Man of the Woods’, ‘Papillate Pinkgill’, ‘Plums and Custard’, ‘Powdercap Strangler’, ‘Scurfy Deceiver’, ‘Slippery Jack’, ‘Sordid Blewit’, ‘Witches Butter’ … I’ll stop there.

Fungi are an often underrated element of biodiversity; working away, mostly out of site, maintaining healthy ecosystems that are so important to the natural environment..

A few types of wild (uncultivated) mushrooms are edible, many taste of nothing, and others are toxic and quite often deadly. You always need to be absolutely sure which is which if you’re intending to eat one. Foraging in England and Wales is not illegal as long as what is collected is not intended for commercial use. However please remember that most of the North York Moors is privately owned and you’d need permission from the landowner to range over private land.

Picking mushrooms won’t necessarily damage the fungi but the more that are picked the less chance the fungi has of reproducing.

Fungi in and around the North York Moors - mixture of fungi possibly including Candlesnuff - copyright Tom Stephenson, NYMNPA.

For more on fascinating fungi – have a look at The British Mycological Society and the Fungus Conservation Trust websites. Local Naturalist Societies are often great sources of local knowledge.

Fostering hedgerow trees

John Beech – Land Management Adviser

Mature trees within a hedgerow network are an important feature in the countryside. This is where land managers across generations have allowed single hedgerow plants to grow to their potential, alongside hedgerow plants that are coppiced, laid, and managed to create a boundary. Hedgerow trees have no particular value in terms of land management, but have huge value for wildlife and for the landscape.

Re-laying a hedge - copyright NYMNPA.

Traditionally Elm, Ash and Oak trees were the dominant hedgerow tree species reaching heights of up to and over 30 metres tall, towering above the hedgerow corridors. Saplings that are allowed to grow higher than the surrounding hedge do not need to compete for light and therefore grow and spread their canopy high and wide up into the air. This provides a wonderful habitat kingdom for many species of wildlife, free from the clutch of ground based predators. Such trees act as key wildlife ‘stepping stones’ between woodland habitats and across a mixed landscape.

Large hedgerow tree near Low Askew - copyright NYMNPA.

The intensification of agriculture in the latter half of the 20th century including increasing field sizes resulted in the loss of thousands of miles of hedgerows along with their hedgerow trees. The outbreak of Dutch elm disease from the late 1960s onwards removed some 20 million elms from our countryside, mostly from hedgerows. It is therefore quite rare now to find a mature Elm tree within a hedgerow. Similarly Ash trees are now threatened by Chalara dieback.

In 1998 there were an estimated 1.8 million hedgerow trees in Britain (CPRE survey). Many of our over mature hedgerow trees today are beginning to die and slowly retrench. There is an adage that an Oak tree takes over 200 years to grow and then 200 years to die.

Planting hedgerow gaps between old hedgerow trees - copyright NYMNPA.

To check the loss of hedgerow trees we need to be planting new ones to replace the ones that are dying back. The 1998 survey revealed that only 1% of hedgerow trees were in the youngest age class (1-4 years old). Without successional planning there is a danger that these key features will be lost for good from the landscape and the disconnection between farmed land and semi natural woodland will become more marked than ever. It takes a leap of imagination but by planting now land managers will be leaving their mark on the landscape for their children.

Trees take time to grow. Native wildlife species use hedgerow trees but birds, bats and butterflies in particular favour mature hedgerow trees.

Hedgerow trees in the landscape - copyright NYMNPA.Tawny Owls take advantage of mature trees both as nesting sites and day roosts usually hiding close up against trunk. From a tree perch owls can see the movement of their potential prey on the ground below them. Bullfinches clamber amongst the branches searching for seeds, buds and insects. Treecreepers and Nuthatches use their Hedgerow trees in the landscape - copyright NYMNPA.acrobatic skills to forage for insects, nuts and berries and Woodpeckers drill away into the deadwood high in the canopy to make a home and feast on any tiny invertebrates in the wood. Butterflies such as Hairstreaks forage for honeydew from aphids and lay their eggs high up in the Oaks and Elms. Rich lichen communities also grow on the branches of old hedgerow trees.

In some of the older trees, holes and crevices provide ideal habitats for a variety of bat species. Around three quarters of British bat species are known to roost in trees. Bats use different parts of the tree for different reasons, depending on the time of year and temperature. In the summer bats use the higher canopy sites to have their young in warmer temperatures. In winter, they move deeper and lower into the tree to hibernate. Trees such as Oak, Beech and Ash are particularly suitable for bats, but any hedgerow tree has potential for a bat roost – especially if it has cavities in the trunk or branches, woodpecker holes, loose bark, cracks, splits and thick ivy. In Britain, all bat species and their roosts are legally protected by law.

Single hedgerow tree alongside an arable field - potential 'stepping stone' - copyright NYMNPA.

We’re working on enhancing wildlife corridors and connections through our habitat connectivity initiative, and as part of this we’re actively encouraging the planting of hedgerow trees where appropriate. With the loss of Elm and the threat to Ash, Oak is now the main species being planted in the North York Moors to become the hedgerow trees of the future. With good care and maintenance the trees should grow into vigorous specimens.

Mature hedgerow trees as a feature in the landscape - copyright John Beech, NYMNPA.

To foster hedgerow trees:

  • Select suitable saplings from within an existing hedgerow and add a tree tag to the top of it. This shows/reminds the person who cuts the hedge to leave this strong sapling to grow into a mature tree.
  • Alternatively, plant a hedgerow tree adjacent to an existing hedge to add variety and height. This has the added advantage of widening the hedgerow and enables useful wildlife buffer strips to develop along the hedge bottom. If there is an existing gap within a hedgerow that is wide enough to accommodate a hedgerow tree then plant a new tree there.
  • Try to avoid uniform planting and instead plant the new trees at irregular intervals along the hedge line. Planting two or three together may also be suitable for instance if a site is next to a field corner.
  • Plant trees with local provenance that will be used to the local conditions and be more likely to flourish.
  • It is best practice to add a tree guard or tube attached to a stake to protect a tree in its early years from stock, rabbits or deer. A mulch mat around the base of the tree helps to keep the weeds down. This will give the tree every chance to grow strong and straight.

Practical help and advice can be provided by the National Park Authority. Contact us.

Habitat connectivity: evaluating potential

Roy McGhie – Conservation Project Assistant

Over the last month or so I’ve been investigating habitat connectivity in a new target area – near Boltby on the western fringe of the North York Moors.

Landscape from top of escarpment, near Boltby - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

This particular area has a fantastic variety of habitats, from the arable plain on top of the escarpment, down the slope through Boltby Forest and across to the pasture fields in the west. Our overarching objective for this area is to strengthen the mosaic of habitats, with special reference to improving networks for butterflies and bats.

After my initial desk-based research I proceeded to ground truth the area to establish how much of our mapping and existing information was still accurate and to build up a current picture of the area. With so many public rights of way in the National Park exploring is usually pretty straightforward, but for closer examination of any particular area we would always ensure we have the land manager’s permission.

Felled veteran tree with dead wood left in situ (good for invertebrates, fungii and lichens) - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

It’s important to establish what levels of connectivity already exist. Above the escarpment most of the arable fields are in Environmental Stewardship agreements, which suggests positive environmental land management is already in place and making use of national agri-environment schemes is something we would always encourage where appropriate for the environment and the land manager.

The Forestry Commission own a large forest within the area – Boltby Forest – and their Forest Design Plan sets out their long-term vision. This includes increasing the ratio of broadleaved trees to conifers and maintaining areas of open space. The open space is very useful in terms of meeting our original objectives for the area because open spaces in woodland create edge habitat which attracts bats.

Within Boltby Forest - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Another valuable habitat found within this area is unimproved and semi improved grassland, both acidic and calcareous in terms of soil pH because it’s where the farmland of the Vale of Mowbray meets the western edge of the moorland. Some of these grassland sites appear to be in a good condition and have an appropriate level of grazing to maintain this, whereas others seem more precarious.

Heath bedstraw and tormentil, indicative of an acidic grassland site - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Lots of wild thyme, commonly found on calcareous sites - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.The biggest threat to most of the grassland appears to be a lack of effective grazing. On several sites rank grass are beginning to dominate, resulting in wildflowers being outcompeted. On other sites scrub encroachment means that the grassland interest will diminish.

Rank grass and ash trees taking over a grassland site - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

In a site where grazing is happening, there is occasional poaching (heavy ground trampling) by cattle alongside the small watercourse. This happens when stock congregate along particular parts of the bank to drink, or cross over.

Poached land beside a small beck - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Bracken is another issue in the target area. Bracken isn’t necessarily a bad thing – it can provide excellent cover for ground flora and butterflies such as the rare Pearl-bordered fritillary, but its tendency to spread means that it can very quickly outcompete and overcome other vegetation.

Bracken alongside a public footpath - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

There are plenty of positive biodiversity hot spots in this area, including patches of habitat that are excellent for butterflies. There are also a number of established hedgerows acting as wildlife corridors for bats to navigate by.

Common blue butterfly - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.Small copper butterfly - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

So once I’d assessed the area and its connectivity potential, I discussed ideas and options for how best to deliver the original objective with input from Rona, our Ecologist, and Mark, our Woodland Officer.

One of the key ideas coming out of these discussions is to provide long term replacements for the many mature in-field and boundary trees. These trees provide multiple benefits such as shelter for stock as well as a habitat for birds, invertebrates and insects. I recorded a standing veteran tree during my on-site survey and ideally we would like to see this tree fenced off as the stock in the field are causing considerable erosion around the base which may be weakening it.

To reduce the poaching alongside the watercourse we could help repair the fencing and investigate the use of a field trough so the cattle wouldn’t need to drink out of the beck.

Another idea is to fence off a particular area of mature ash trees to allow natural regeneration. This is because some ash trees show genetic resistance to the ash dieback pathogen, so whilst planting new ash trees is currently not encouraged assisting natural regeneration by older trees might mean that potentially disease resistant stocks are bolstered.

For the various grassland sites in the area, different management options are proposed. On the sites with bracken encroachment we could suggest organising volunteer tasks to help keep the bracken under control. On other sites we will need to discuss with the land manager their aims for their land and see if there is scope to manage levels of grazing to ensure the wildflower interest remains and potentially expands. Land manager engagement is a crucial part of the habitat connectivity development process – our management proposals on private land can’t happen without their permission and goodwill. Negotiations are the next step in the habitat connectivity process.

Overall I think this target area near Boltby is in a pretty well connected condition. There is already a mosaic of habitats suitable for bats and butterflies, and it forms part of a much more extensive network along the western fringe of the North York Moors. Our involvement will probably be relatively minimal, working where we can with local land managers to conserve the valuable grasslands and to sustain the important tree population into the future.

Landscape near Boltby - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

 

Calyx, panicle, auricle and glabrous

Roy McGhie – Conservation Project Assistant

As my role in the Conservation Department develops I am getting more involved in woodland planting/creation, and woodland habitats. To this end, I recently attended a Field Studies Council weekend course on Identifying Woodland Plants. Over the three days we looked at not only typical woodland wildflowers and trees, but also the bryophytes, ferns and grasses which make up an important part of any woodland ecosystem. Plant identification enables a recognition and understanding of a habitat which then helps inform management.

In the North York Moors we have a lot of ancient semi-natural woodland (ASNW) as well as what is known as plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS) where semi natural woodland has been planted up with commercial forestry in the past but where ancient woodland features still persist.

If you walk through a woodland and see combinations of bluebells, daffodils, yellow archangel, celandine, wild garlic you might be forgiven for thinking you are in an ancient woodland because you are looking at typical ancient woodland ground flora. However, all of these species have garden imposters which look similar, and might have been introduced. Yellow archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. montanum) for example, is an ancient woodland indicator species, whilst the garden variety of the plant (Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. argentatum) is an invasive plant usually grown as ground cover in gardens. This garden variety of Yellow archangel is classified as a Schedule 9 plant under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 meaning it is an offence to release it into the wild. Quite often the garden imposters are brought into woodlands by people dumping garden waste or tracking seeds in on boots or vehicles. They are therefore usually found on the edges of woodlands at first, but can very quickly colonise inwards.

We spent a large part of the course looking at the species that can be easily confused. These include examples such as Wood speedwell and Germander speedwell, Yellow pimpernel and Creeping-Jenny, Wild strawberry and Barren strawberry as well as trees such as Beech and Hornbeam. When plants are in flower identification can be easy enough but we also focused on vegetative characteristics so as to be able to recognise plants when not in flower. For example, the terminal tooth on Barren strawberry (Potentilla sterilis) leaves is generally shorter than the two surrounding side teeth, whereas on Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) the terminal tooth is longer than the side ones. This is an important distinction to make as Barren strawberry can be a good ancient woodland indicator species, whereas Wild strawberry tends to be less so.

Wild strawberry in flower with Barren strawberry growing right beside it - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Identifying different oaks on site - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.Another element of the course was learning to describe why a particular species had been identified as one thing rather than another. It was not enough to point at an English Oak (Quercus robur) and say what it was, we had to explain that it could not be a Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea) because there were intercalary veins (between the apex and the base) on the leaf, leaf auricles strongly present (ear shaped lobes), and a petiole length of approximately 2-5mm (that’s the leaf stalk). Interestingly, we found stellate (star shaped) hairs on the underside of almost all the English Oaks we looked at, suggesting that they were in fact hybrid oaks (Quercus x rosacea), albeit leaning strongly towards English Oak.

Many botanists currently rely upon Clive Stace’s New Flora of the British Isles for their plant ID, and recent taxonomic changes caught out some of the more experienced participants on the course who were more familiar with previous texts. Taxonomy is the hierarchical system used to classify organisms to a species level; it was initially developed during the 18th century and has been adjusted ever since. With the advances in genetic science a number of plants have been reclassified lately according to genetic, rather than morphological, similarity. For example, in the 3rd edition of Stace, Lime trees are now part of the Mallow family (Malvaceae) rather than having their own Tiliaceae family, the Maple family is now Sapindaceae instead of their own Aceraceae family, and Bluebells have changed from Liliaceae (Lilly family) to Asparagaceae (Asparagus family).

Studying bryophytes was a completely new experience for me, and it was fascinating area to investigate. We looked at the main differences between mosses and liverworts, and then broke them down into acrocarpous/polycarpous (depending on location/number of reproductive parts on the plant) and thalloid/leafy groups (depending on plant structure or lack of it). This allowed us to more quickly use a key to then identify what we were looking at. Out of all the ones we identified my favourite was probably Thuidium tamariscinum; it is tripinnate (the layout of the leaflets) and regularly branched giving it a feathery, almost fern-like appearance.

Identifying a bryophyte back in the classroom - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Ferns were also rewarding. We were able to break these down into groups based on how pinnate (compound leaves with leaflets on either side of axis) they were, and how the sori (clusters of sporangia in which the spores form) on the back of the fronds were shaped. For example, the Dryopteridaceae family we looked at were bipinnate and had kidney shaped sori arranged in a row on either side of the mid-rib of the pinnule (division/sub division of a compund leaf). Male-fern (Dryopteris filix-mas) was one such member of this family. It was similar to the scaly male-fern (Dryopteris affinis agg.) but had fewer golden scales, lacked a small dark mark at the rachis (leaf axis) join and the pinnules tended to taper inwards more towards the apex.

Hard fern (Blechnum spicant) showing the fertile (lighter in colour and more upright) and sterile (darker) fronds on the same plant. Copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Grasses, rushes and sedges can also be ancient woodland indicators. Some of them, such as Pendulous Sedge (Carex pendula) are also common in gardens (and therefore liable to colonise woodlands through being dumped as garden waste), and this served to highlight the importance of always doing a broad survey of any woodland and not assuming it has ancient characteristics based on the presence of only one or two indicator species.

Pendulous sedge (Carex pendula) growing beside a footpath - copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

The course finished with a two hour exam in which we had to identify and justify our reasoning for twenty different woody and herbaceous plants. Whilst two hours initially sounded like a lot of time, it meant only five or six minutes per plant, and the time quickly flew by! I actually enjoyed it.

Despite having never previously looked closely at bryophytes or ferns before, let alone encountered terms such as calyx, panicle, auricle and glabrous*, the course had me completely hooked. Some people have dedicated their entire lives to studying single plant families, and new discoveries and species are not infrequent. Now whenever I go into a woodland I’m going to be carrying a hand lens with me – if you do the same you might find that there is a whole world to discover.

*If you want to find out what these words and a host of other botanical terms mean – try here.

Please note that it’s always best to try and identify a plant in the field if possible – take an ID key and a lens out with you. Collecting small amounts of plant material for identification purposes is usually okay, except in the case of protected or (rare) Red List species. But please don’t pick plants if  the population at the location is very small and may suffer as a result. If a specimen really is needed for identification, remove the minimum quantity necessary. Please note it is illegal to uproot most wild plants without the express permission of the landowner.

 

A to Z – a flock of Fs

F

FARMERS

David Winship, farmer in Bilsdale - by kind permission of Mr Whinship - copyright NYMNPA.We talk on our Blog about the important species that make the North York Moors their home – wading birds, rare arable flowers, water voles etc. however Ami our Lead Senior Land Management Adviser would argue that the most important species whose home is the North York Moors, are the Farmers!

The North York Moors may look wild and full of natural beauty but it is a largely managed landscape and it is the farmers that undertake the majority of that management which makes the area what it is. The National Park depends on its farmers.

A few of their number have migrated here from other populations however the majority are born and brought up here and will spend all their working lives in the North York Moors. Their children often work on the farm but may also have to find work elsewhere to sustain the general population. This population is contracting with a decline in the number of farmed holdings in the National Park, from 1608 in 2007 to 978 in 2013 (Defra Farming Statistics).

Keith Prudom, farmer from Mickleby, by kind permission of Mr Prudom - copyright NYMNPA.

“No matter what their origins, all the farmers I meet have a great sense of pride in what they do and where they live – farming and the North York Moors is in their blood”.

FARNDALE

Farndale is probably the most famous dale in the North York Moors, mainly due to its population of wild daffodils which bring the visitors in spring to admire the golden views.

Farndale Daffodil walk - copyright Mike Nicholas for NYMNPA.Looking north up Farndale - copyright NYMNPAHere are five facts about Farndale.

  • In 1955 (just three years after the North York Moors National Park was created) Farndale was designated a Local Nature Reserve to help protect the wild daffodils growing there. The designation meant specific local byelaws could be brought in urgently to prohibit the digging up and removing of bulbs which was considered a major threat at the time. Wild daffodils are also known as the Lent Lily, as they often bloom and die away between Ash Wednesday and Easter. But not always, and it’s worth keeping an eye on the National Park’s website to see when the flowers are blooming each year.
  • In Wordsworth’s elegiac poem of 1798-99, ‘She dwelt among the untrodden ways’, the solitary and idealised Lucy lives and dies close to the ‘springs of Dove’. It has been suggested that this is a reference to the source of the River Dove which snakes its way down through Farndale and joins the River Rye. But there are also River Doves in Westmorland and Derbyshire, so a real river cannot be identified and the ‘Dove’ remains a poetical expression. It’s not yet been suggested, or maybe it has, that Wordsworth’s ‘host of golden daffodils’ in the poem ‘I wandered lonely as a cloud’ were the wild daffodils of Farndale.
  • In the late 1960s Farndale was almost drowned through a plan to dam and flood the steep sided dale in order to create a source of drinking water for cities to the south such as Hull. The 1960s saw a rush of reservoir building aimed at securing water supplies. The proposed Farndale Reservoir would have covered 400 acres, submerged 20 farm-holdings and held 8 million gallons of water. But the plan was abandoned.
  • In 1990 (a year before the original national Countryside Stewardship Scheme was piloted) the National Park officially launched its own Farm Scheme (1990 – 2014), a local agri-environment scheme which provided grant aid for capital works and annual payments for environmental land management. The local scheme came about because unlike most of the other upland National Parks at the time, the North York Moors was never designated as an Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) for its landscape, wildlife and/or historical value, and therefore land managers here were missing out on ESA grants. Nine farms in Upper Farndale were the first to join the North York Moors Farm Scheme, and all nine later secured national Higher Level Stewardship agreements because of their conservation value.The original Farndale Farm Scheme Farmers - an evocative press photograph from 1990
  • There are many examples of early field systems at the top end of Farndale. These most likely date from early medieval times (and some could potentially even be prehistoric), providing a visible example of how man has worked and managed the landscape for centuries. The field systems are still visible at the dale head because the conditions are difficult and so the farming remains extensive.

FENESTRATION

The word Fenestration is an architectural term used to describe the arrangement of windows in a building and derives from the French word ‘fenestre’ meaning window.

The vernacular fenestration in and around the North York Moors comes in many different forms from the more common styles of the Yorkshire sliding sash (below top) and vertical sliding sash (below middle) to the more unusual ‘Whitby composite’ (below bottom) which is a window style generally only found in the coastal area of the North York Moors.
Yorkshire sliding sash window - copyright NYMNPAVeritcal sliding sash windows - copyright NYMNPA'Whitby composite' windows - copyright NYMNPA

Windows are the ‘eyes’ of a building and their size, location and style play a key role in defining the character of a building. The choices made in relation to window replacements and their alteration may affect the character, appearance and ultimately the value of a property.

Traditional, vernacular cottages have small, simple and functional fenestration. This is generally concentrated on the principle elevation with fewer openings to the rear elevation which was a deliberate effort to minimise heat loss in cold winters.

Traditional vernacular cottage - copyright NYMNPA.

In contrast elegant and classical Georgian houses have symmetrically arranged, multi-pane windows without ‘horns’ – projecting pieces of timber at the base of the top sash – and are an intrinsic detail of this architectural period. Note how the windows become smaller towards the top of the house. This reflects the status and business of each floor and, in design terms, prevents the building looking ‘top heavy’.

Classical Georgian House - copyright NYMNPA.

During the Victorian period glass making techniques developed and larger panes of glazing became more fashionable and affordable. ‘Horns’ were added to the top sash to add rigidity to windows which contained fewer glazing bars.

Victorian period house - copyright NYMNPA.

Crown glass in situ - copyright NYMNPA.Glazing is an important element in any window. Crown glass is one of the oldest forms of glass and is now very rare. Its main characteristic is its “wavy” or “rippled” appearance which really adds to the character of a property. It scintillates when you walk past and creates a beautiful quality of light internally. Crown glass was widely used until the mid-19th century but ceased being manufactured in the early 20th century. Therefore where old or historic glass remains it is very important it is not replaced.

Float glass is the modern form of glazing invented in the late 1950s and involves flowing the molten material over a bath of molten tin. It is completely flat and therefore lacks much of the interest of earlier glass. Treatments added to float glass to increase its thermal performance can also make glass look like Perspex and so from a Building Conservation perspective this should be avoided if possible and alternative means of minimising heat loss should be considered.

The timber lintel (i.e. cheaper than stone) is a feature of vernacular buildings which is often seen on simple cottages and farm buildings due to their comparative lower status. They can also be found on the rear elevations of higher status properties i.e. out of sight, and are an important insight into the hierarchical status of different elevations and buildings. Often people rush to replace timber lintels with stone but by maintaining timber lintels in situ or installing them appropriately in new buildings people can help conserve this important feature variation.

Where traditional fenestration has been lost through the introduction of poor quality or modern styles, the Building Conservation team are always keen to see the
reinstatement of the original style of window. However it is common for a property to Part stone mullioned window - copyright NYMNPA.display several different historic styles as owners were influenced by different architectural periods over the long life time of the building. Where this happens, it’s always important to try to keep the clues that tell the story of the past. This stone-mullioned window (right) could easily be reconstructed, but the later nineteenth-century casement window is vital evidence of the building’s evolution over time.

This cottage in Appleton le Moors (below) was formerly a farmhouse before becoming the village shop in the 20th century until it closed c.1980. Likely to have originally contained Yorkshire sliding sashes, this 19th century ‘Arts and Crafts’ revamp is a high quality addition that adds to the building’s architectural and historic character and contributes to the area’s local distinctiveness – its quirky and characterful.

Cottage in Appleton le Moors - copyright NYMNPA.

There are always windows which don’t seem to fit into any style and go against all the normal design principles. This house in Thornton le Dale (below) with four pane sashes at first floor provides a horizontal arrangement which goes against design principles, yet it is uniquely charming, adding character and interest to this Georgian property.

House in Thornton le Dale - copyright NYMNPA.

Historic England have useful guidance on the care, repair and upgrading of traditional windows. For the different stages of window repair see our previous blog post.

FOORD’S WATER RACES

During the 18th century, Joseph Foord, a self-taught engineer and surveyor, worked out that it was possible to bring the copious amounts of water available from the springs and becks of the high moors down to the drier limestone pastures of the Tabular Hills plateau in the south of the North York Moors, by means of gravity alone.

The farms and settlements of the Tabular Hills were recorded as suffering summer droughts in the mid-18th century, which caused high stock losses and considerable distress to the local populations. By bringing a dependable water supply to these areas, agricultural productivity could be increased and the conditions for the villagers improved, and therefore once their worth was clear the local landowners were prepared to commission Foord’s practical solution.

Foord (1714-1788) was a yeoman farmer with an interest in a colliery near his home in Fadmoor, and who also specialised in water mills. Familiar with water leats and their management, the first commissions ran across Duncombe Park Estate land where Foord and his father before him worked as land agents.

His water races (or channels) were a work of remarkable surveying skill and hydrological engineering which enabled the transfer of water using only gravity and created at a time when detailed maps and contours were unknown, Foord stands out as a true visionary and a man of exceptional capabilities.

Rievaulx water race - you can see the channel route coming down across the moorland - copyright NYMNPAOver 75 miles of created water races are known in total and these can still be traced across the landscape over large distances. They survive largely as shallow ditches with low embankments, particularly on the downhill side, which closely follow the contours, and in many places they have structures associated with them, such as stone culverts known as ‘smoots’ where they pass beneath field walls, and ‘brigsons’ where stone slabs are laid across the channels to carry paths and tracks. Some also have small scale aqueducts and tunnels. The longest race – Rievaulx – is 12.7 miles and illustrates Foord’s considerable skills, working with gradients as fine as 1 in 430.

The water races are an important historical and cultural feature of the North York Moors. At present the water races have no statutory designation, but as a group they have been assessed by Historic England as being of exceptional national importance.

Water Race - Bonfield Gill Aqueduct October 2005 after flood damage - copyright NYMNPA

Research into the network of Foord water races was undertaken by Dr Isabel McLean and published by the North York Moors National Park Authority in 2005 as Water from the Moors. The Life and Works of Joseph Foord. Since then, the Helmsley Archaeological and Historical Society, with the assistance of the National Park, have been surveying the Foord water races with the aims of locating the individual features identified in Water from the Moors, recording the condition of all known sections of water race and highlighting areas where there may be opportunities for improved management or restoration. This work has been continued in recent years by Ed Dennison Archaeological Services Ltd.

FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR (Common or European Ash)

Upland mixed ashwoods (a national Priority Habitat) are an important habitat and landscape element of the North York Moors. Ash is usually the major component of this woodland type, but oak, birch, elm and small-leaved lime may also be present. Typically ash and downy birch are the dominant canopy trees with hazel dominating the understorey. Mixed ashwoods are amongst the richest habitats for wildlife in the uplands. They support a rich ground flora often dominated by dog’s mercury, with common dog violet, early purple orchid, and primrose. Ashwoods can be but may not necessarily be ancient, as ash is able to colonise open ground relatively easily. These mixed ashwoods are usually found on free-draining, base-rich limestone soil, but in the North York Moors ashwoods are also found on slightly acid soils where there is a flushing of nutrients along riverside strips or on flushes and outcrops.

Upland Mixed Ashwoods - copyright Mark Antcliff, NYMNPA

Ash trees are often found in fields and hedgerows too; they are a common farmland tree.

Chalara fraxinea is a tree disease – also known as Ash Dieback – caused by a fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus), which has been recorded in the UK since 2012. The disease particularly effects Common Ash and usually kills the tree either directly or indirectly (the tree is fatally weakened) – young trees die more quickly than older trees so older woodlands tend to deteriorate slowly over time. The fungus can be spread by the wind, so unsurprisingly and probably inevitably it’s reached the North York Moors.

Not removing ash trees and woodland arbitrarily is important to potentially help identify tolerance. The best hope of a long-term future for ash trees and woods is by identifying the genetics that mean some ash trees tolerate the infection, and then breeding new generations of tolerant ash trees for the future. There has recently been encouraging progress made by the University of York/John Innes Centre. It’s definitely not hopeless – and maybe if you’re reading this Blog in 20 years’ time Chalara will have been made ineffectual.

For now it’s important to report sightings of Chalara because it’s a notifiable disease – Tree Alert.

FYLINGTHORPE SLUG

Fylingthorpe Slug - from Whitby Gazette 3 October 2014

The only known UK location for this beautiful rather large slug is in the grounds of Fyling Hall School in Fylingthorpe. Its closest relative is from the Appennine Mountains in Tuscany.

As to how the species got to Fylingthorpe on the rugged North Yorkshire coast – it is suggested that eggs could have arrived with an Italian marble fireplace imported for Fyling Hall (now the School) back in the 19th century.

This Fylingthorpe subspecies has not yet been given a scientific name.

Previously on the North York Moors A to Z … A, B, C, D, E

A botanical Christmas

A festive rattle through some of the plants associated with Christmas – some of which, but decidedly not all, grow in the North York Moors…

Sam Witham – Conservation Research Student

Holly in the North York Moors - copyright Kirsty Brown, NYMNPA

Common holly Ilex aquifolium

Christmassy fact: Holly is well known as a festive winter decoration. The Romans sent holly branches with presents during the December festival of Saturnalia.

Other facts: ‘Holm’ is an old name for holly and is seen in place names such as Holmwood and Holmsdale.

UK Habitat: Woodland and hedgerows – it is commonly found as an understorey tree or shrub in oak and beech woods.

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Ivy in the North York Moors - copyright Kirsty Brown, NYMNPA

Common ivy Hedera Helix

Christmassy fact: Traditionally ivy is associated with holly (hence the song) and used in festive winter decorations.

Other facts: Ivy can be mistaken for two different species as the juvenile leaves look totally different to the adult ones. In some countries, where it has been introduced, it is classed as an invasive species.

Young ivy plant - http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/animalsAndPlants/noxious-weeds/weed-identification/english-ivy.aspx Older ivy plant - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedera#/media/File:Ivy_fruits.JPG

UK Habitat: Woodland and hedgerows, pretty much everywhere.

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Mistletoe - https://www.flickr.com/photos/50780708@N02/23233931062/in/photolist-Bp6Yfj-BUDacy-4j9yvv-gBaopM-8ZVcso-s2yumx-4bLMCN-aZ6L4p-5LLkCB-dX8H2z-rvpSYJ-inXCLu-7jnCE2-i9FvW6-4749S1-qT5sxw-uvftw9-dCCFCR-pLtrdq-7ff4Cb-qk3uuR-7rSpe4-99CRPd-pvetfG-7hhVUi-r1Ebdt-5LyxL3-poSS8o-uw45F-iW6fWi-fgguG2-qxKiPX-aVetnt-qFU2gt-qpuLhQ-fPBXx8-pHEZAP-5MQ7pN-cqoujm-nLzs9D-6UU2jB-dneBvf-aUKdwz-7mH6Pj-57xvpx-hLjsHq-nsiRC6-qstbSm-ehkmaP-AKXPia

European Mistletoe Viscum album

Christmassy fact: Mistletoe is used as a Christmas decoration and there is a long-held tradition of kissing underneath it. For each kiss made under a bough, a berry was removed.

Other facts: Mistletoe is semi-parasitic. In the UK, poplar, lime, apple and hawthorn are common hosts. Druids apparently used the plant as an aphrodisiac hence the association with kissing. The folklore around mistletoe is endless.

UK Habitat: Trees and Woodland, more prevalent in the south of Britain.

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Veteran Oak - Deer Park, Helmsley - copyright NYMNPA

Pedunculate oak Quercus robur

Christmassy fact: The Yule log, a special log burnt through the Christmas season, was traditionally cut from oak. Each Christmas a piece of the Yule log was saved to light the next year’s Yule log.

Other facts: Oaks are home to many species of wildlife and can live to a great age. The Oak plays an important role in British history/culture as a symbol of strength and steadfastness.

UK Habitat: Woodland, Wood Pasture and Parkland

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Growing 'Christmas Trees' in Scotland - http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-35050437

Christmas trees Various species including several Firs, Pines, Spruces, Cypresses and Cedars

Christmasy fact: The idea of the Christmas tree began in Germany as far back as the 15th and 16th centuries, where Christians brought decorated trees into their homes. Traditionally the tree was decorated with edibles such as apples, nuts and other foods. An angel or star is often placed at the top of the tree to represent the Archangel Gabriel or the Star of Bethlehem from the Nativity.

Other facts: There are about 600 conifer species and the group contains the world’s tallest tree (Redwood Sequoia sempervirens) and oldest tree (Great Basin bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva).

Habitat/distribution: Conifers occur on all continents except Antarctica, and are found in a wide range of habitats.

Other Christmas Trees…New Zealand Christmas Tree (Pōhutukawa) Metrosideros excelsa and the Western Australian Christmas Tree Nuytsia floribunda

New Zealand Christmas Tree - http://www.fotolibra.com/gallery/88939/pohutikawa-trees-in-blossom-new-zealand/

Western Australian Christmas Tree - http://www.floristtaxonomy.com/category/nuytsia

Christmasy facts: These trees flower from October/November to January, hence being known as Christmas Trees.

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Frankinsence trees - http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/boswellia-sacra-frankincense

Frankincense tree Boswellia sacra

Christmassy fact: Frankincense is the valuable oily gum resin from Boswellia trees, named in the Bible as one of the three gifts given to the baby Jesus by the Three Wise Men.

Other facts: In ancient Egyptian mythology Frankincense was believed to be the sweat of gods fallen to earth. The legendary phoenix bird was believed to have built nests out of Frankincense twigs and feed upon ‘tears’ of the resin. In some Arab communities the gum is chewed to treat stomach problems. The gum can also be burnt as incense.

Habitat/distribution: Desert woodland, on rocky limestone slopes, and the ‘fog oasis’ woodlands of the southern coastal mountains of the Arabian Peninsula. Here in the summer months the mountains are covered in thick fog allowing a rich woodland flora to develop. Also native to Native to Ethiopia, northern Somalia, south-western Oman and southern Yemen.

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Commiphora spp - http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantcd/commiphora.htm

Myrrh tree Commiphora guidottii

Christmassy fact: This particular myrrh tree is the source of the oleo-gum-resin (a mixture of volatile oil, gum and resin) known as scented myrrh which is suggested to be the myrrh named in the Bible as another of the three gifts the Three Wise Men presented to the baby Jesus.

Other facts: Together with Frankincense, myrrh is a common incense ingredient used in religious ceremonies. Ancient Egyptians used the gum resin to preserve mummies. Its antibiotic properties reduced decay and gave a sweet scent.

Habitat/distribution: Somalian and Ethiopian bushland.

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Helleborus niger - http://europe.floraveronese.net/helleborusniger.htm

Christmas rose (also known as Black hellebore) Helleborus niger

Christmassy fact: According to legend, a young shepherdess named Madelon was tending her sheep one cold and wintry night. As she watched over them, a group of wise men and other shepherds passed by, bearing gifts for the newly born Jesus. Madelon wept, because she had no gifts to bring the New-born King, not even a simple flower… An angel, upon hearing her weeping, appeared and brushed away the snow to reveal a most beautiful white flower tipped with pink – the Christmas Rose.

Other facts: An overdose of Hellebore medication has been suggested as the possible cause of death of Alexander the Great. The Christmas rose does not belong to the rose family (Rosaceae) – it in fact belongs to the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae)

Habitat/distribution: Mountainous woods and slopes. It is found in Switzerland, southern Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia and northern Italy.

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Winter view looking south down Rosedale - copyright Ami Walker, NYMNPA

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year from the North York Moors National Park

Winter visitors

Kate Bailey – Conservation Graduate Trainee

As winter approaches, avian visitors arrive from the north and east to spend winter in the British Isles where the climate is milder and food is more abundant. These visiting birds will then leave our shores to head for their breeding grounds in springtime.

Two well-known and widespread winter visitors to the North York Moors, and across the UK, are the winter thrushes – Redwing and Fieldfare. Flocks are a well-known sight in our British countryside with hundreds of birds arriving each year looking for food.

Redwings Turdus iliacus

Redwing - http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/ce3cd0beac24186666bee91e279da9ecaecd0321.jpg

Redwings tend to arrive from Iceland and Scandinavia to winter in the UK before heading south to breed come springtime. Although a very small number have been known to breed in the far north of Scotland. These small thrushes are dark brown above and white below, with a black-streaked breast and orange-red flanks and underwing. The birds look for open countryside to feed on berries in hedgerows and on farmland; making the landscape of the North York Moors an ideal location. However Redwings have a nomadic nature depending on food availability and weather conditions which means they will also travel to built up areas, parks and gardens.

Fieldfares Turdus pilaris

Fieldfare - http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/About/General/2010/1/11/1263232128755/A-fieldfare-001.jpg

Fieldfares, like Redwings, begin to arrive in October and head to open countryside to feed on berry-laden bushes. Fieldfares have a chestnut-brown back and yellow breast streaked with black, a black tail, dark wings and pale grey rump and head. They can often be seen in large flocks mixing with Redwings and roaming the countryside in the same search for food. This large colourful thrush will also come into gardens to feed if the weather conditions are poor. Holding back cutting hedges and bushes with berries on such as Hawthorn, Rowan, Holly and Rosehips is a help for these birds.

Waxwings Bombycilla garrulous

Waxwing - http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/PHOTO/LARGE/bohemian_waxwing_sim_3.jpg

Waxwings are not annual winter visitors to the British Isles but they do arrive irregularly en masse in an event termed an ‘irruption’. This will happen every 10 years or so and is often termed a ‘waxwing winter’ where large numbers of birds travel to the UK from their usual winter residence in Scandinavia. Waxwings usually turn up in the north and east of the country and this is typically the result of a lack of food. These birds are very distinctive with a Mohican style crest and red tips on the wings giving an impression that they have been dipped in wax. Waxwings, like the winter thrushes, will move on when food runs out at one location, often visiting our gardens looking for food with their favourites being Rowan and Hawthorn berries.

Catchment Trilogy – Part 1

Alex Cripps – Catchment Partnership Officer

It’s been a year since the River Esk and Coastal Streams Catchment Partnership was established and we have a lot to be pleased about!

The new initiative – the River Esk and Coastal Streams Catchment Partnership – has brought together the Yorkshire Esk Rivers Trust (YERT) and the North York Moors National Park Authority to pool knowledge and resources to improve and safeguard the catchment’s valuable ecosystems. Our Partnership has the support of DEFRA which, in 2013, rolled out the Catchment Based Approach idea across the UK promoting the need to work together to protect and improve our river catchments, with particular focus on sharing the knowledge, skills and expertise of local people.

I was appointed the Catchment Partnership Officer to help deliver our three year Action Plan which sets out a range of projects including river habitat improvements, fisheries monitoring and wider community engagement initiatives.

The main watercourse of Esk and Coastal Streams management catchment is the 28 mile River Esk which flows through some of the area’s most outstanding scenery. Its catchment is almost wholly within the North York Moors National Park – heather moorland, valleys of farmland, ancient woodlands and stone built villages – it reaches the North Sea at Whitby, just outside the National Park boundary. The river hosts a variety of wildlife which rely on it to survive including Freshwater pearl mussel, Water vole, Atlantic salmon, Sea trout/Brown trout (same species), Sand martin, Dippers, Kingfisher and Otters (which are found now in increasing numbers).

Atlantic salmon lifecycle - http://www.nasco.int/atlanticsalmon.html

Atlantic salmon lifecycle - egg deposition in gravels - http://wdfw.wa.gov/conservation/habitat/spawningbed_protection/redd.html

Over the last year we have secured funding to deliver particular projects in the Catchment – the People’s Postcode Lottery is funding the delivery of our Discovering the Esk project (look out for a future blog post) and the Environment Agency’s Catchment Partnership Action Fund is funding our Glaisdale Beck Restoration Project. Glaisdale Beck is a tributary of the River Esk and suffers from a number of issues affecting water quality, which inevitably in-turn affect the aquatic life found within the beck. Our restoration project is addressing these issues, such as:

Fine sediment – this causes huge problems for spawning fish including Atlantic salmon and sea trout, as a layer of fine sediment over spawning gravels (where fish eggs are deposited within the gravel) starves eggs or young fish (alevins) of oxygen. It also affects species such as the critically endangered freshwater pearl mussel.

Nutrients and organic matter, and bacterial loading from dirty water run-off from farms and livestock having access to the watercourse.

Riverfly Monitoring Volunteer - copyright NYMNPAPollution incidents – we have established a team of local people to act as Riverfly Monitoring Volunteers to assess water quality on a monthly basis by monitoring aquatic invertebrates that are very sensitive to water quality. There are 30 sites being monitored across the catchment, including sites in Glaisdale, so if the number and diversity of aquatic invertebrates drop the Volunteers can alert YERT of any apparent pollution or other trigger incidents so the source can be tackled quickly and the effects limited.

 

Habitat deterioration both in-channel and along the riparian corridor – working with local farmers capital works will be undertaken over the next few months which will help to improve the water quality and riparian habitats of Glaisdale Beck:

  • 2,481 metres of fencing adjacent to Glaisdale Beck will prevent livestock  Example of stock fencing and riparian buffer in Esk Catchment - copyright NYMNPAaccessing the beck and stop stock excrement entering the river, and also stop the bank sides becoming broken up and bare of vegetation because of stock. The newly formed buffer strips within the fencing will allow riparian vegetation to develop and trees to become established, stabilising the banks and catching sediments and nutrients that may run off neighbouring fields.
  • 5 drinking bays and 2 cattle pasture pumps will be installed because we’re fencing off the access to Glaisdale Beck so we obviously need to install new water supplies for stock.
  • 2 crossing points will be strengthened where there are pinch points in the landscape which livestock pass through on a regular basis. Crossing points can become poached (muddy and eroded) and loose sediments are then easily washed into any nearby watercourse. Crossing points benefit from the laying of hard surfaces such as concrete sleepers to lessen the poaching.

Example of crossing point in Esk Catchment - copyright NYMNPA

Example of improved crossing point with concrete sleepers in Esk Catchment - copyright NYMNPA

  • 60 trees will be planted to bolster the age structure of riparian trees in the dale and help stabilise the banks with their impressive root systems.

Example of new tree planting in Esk Catchment, for stronger banksides - copyright NYMNPA

As usual, teams of National Park Volunteers have already been hard at work in the catchment doing management tasks that make such a difference such as removing derelict fences, repairing existing fence lines and installing new ones. Over the next couple of months they will be carrying out other tasks such as tree planting too. As always, thanks to all of them for their hard work!

National Park Volunteers installing riparian fencing - copyright NYMNPA

National Park Volunteers installing riparian fencing - copyright NYMNPANational Park Volunteers installing riparian fencing - copyright NYMNPA

Mighty oaks from little acorns grow

Sam Witham – Conservation Research Student

Sam Witham, Conservation Student Intern - copyright NYMNPAHello, I am Sam Witham, the new conservation intern student from the University of York. During my year with the National Park, I’ll be undertaking a research project as part of my degree looking at the restoration of plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS). Although I am still undecided on my actual hypothesis, currently I am thinking of comparing the biodiversity and success of planted deciduous forests to forests formed by natural regeneration.

I’ve been here since the beginning of September and I’ve been involved with a wide variety of work so far to get a feel for what people do in the Conservation Department.

UK National Tree Seed Project - collecting in the North York Moors - copyright NYMNPARecently I’ve been involved in tree seed collecting for the UK National Tree Seed Project (UKNTSP) with a team from Kew. A genetically representative collection of all UK tree/shrub species is needed, and one of the important seed zones includes the North York Moors.

Within each UK seed zone, seeds from all locally native tree species need to be collected. Where possible, these seeds are collected from altitudes above and below 300m.

Only trees from ancient semi-natural woodland are collected from, because planted trees might
not be of local origin and therefore will not UK National Tree Seed Project - collecting in the North York Moors - copyright NYMNPArepresent the local gene pool.

The seeds will be stored at the Millennium Seed Bank in West Sussex. Along with seed samples, herbarium samples (pressed plant samples) are taken to show how features such as leaf structure vary across the UK. DNA samples are also taken.

When out in the field, the GPS coordinates of each tree the seeds are taken from are recorded, and a tag added to the tree so it can be found again in the future. Seeds are only collected from branches, as seeds found on the floor will have a greatly reduced lifespan in storage due to damage by pests or pathogens. Seeds are taken from as many branches of the tree as possible as each flower on the tree is likely to have been pollinated by a different male tree.UK National Tree Seed Project - collecting in the North York Moors - copyright NYMNPA

Interestingly, acorns from oak trees are not collected as currently there is no way of storing them for long periods as they die when they dry out and are also easily infected by fungal diseases. Trials of storage using liquid nitrogen are ongoing but the majority of the acorns even with this method still become unviable and will not germinate.

So at the moment the only way to preserve our local gene pool of oaks is to help keep oaks growing here.

The National Park Authority attempts to collect 30,000 locally sourced acorns per year
from around the North York Moors – and around a third of these are expected to germinate. The acorns are grown on and planted out around the area and not only does this help preserve the local gene pool and maintain the area’s natural heritage but it also creates and reinvigorates valuable native woodland habitat for many species. Also, using locally sourced and grown trees helps reduce the risk of transmission of tree diseases around the country.

Acorns collected to be grown on - copyright NYMNPA

Sam and a couple of oak trees - copyright NYMNPAI will keep you posted on the interesting things I get up to during my time at the National Park!