Last year’s top 10 posts

So looking back at last year, these were our most viewed posts:

1.Tales over Tea – upcoming Land of Iron events

Rosedale Iron Kilns, front panorama. Copyright NYMNPA.

This one won by a mile. But there was also 5. Warren Moor Mine: Part Two – the excavation and 6. Making Pictures and 7. Warren Moor Mine: Part One – the Lime Mortar task. The Land of Iron Landscape Partnership Scheme grabbed most of our top spots.

These posts reflect the wealth of outreach activities delivered during 2018, as well as the skills of our summer interns. You might also have noticed that 2018 saw the name change – from ‘This Exploited Land of Iron’ to the shorter and friendlier ‘Land of Iron’.

2019 will see major consolidation works taking place on the main historic structures associated with the ironstone industry in this part of the world, as well as a significant roll out of new interpretation. Sign up to stay in touch with what’s coming up this year.

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2. Jambs, lintels, sills and grantsExamples of character features within the Fylingthorpe Conservation Area. Copyright NYMNPA.

3. Why why why the Rye?Dipper, in River Rye at Duncombe Park. Copyright NYMNPA.

Following 18 months of consultations, taster events, and project developments the Stage 2 application to the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) to support the Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme has at last been submitted. There are 19 individual projects included which focus on the river environment, water quality and engagement.

The Landscape Conservation Action Plan which is the main bid document, is really the Partnership’s manifesto and it lays out why the upper and mid Rye catchment is such a special and valuable area for people, wildlife and their habitats, and why it needs support to secure its future.

The application will be assessed by HLF during March 2019. We’ll let you know what happens. If we get a successful outcome recruitment of the delivery team is anticipated to start early summer. We’re still keen to hear from you if you have ideas and views about this particular catchment, and so we will continue to involve as many people as possible throughout the four years of delivery and beyond into a legacy phase. 

4. Autumn delightsPossibly Hypholoma fasciculare photographed by a member of the public in the Danby Moors Centre car park. Copyright Geoff Lloyd.

For 5. 6. and 7. see 1. above

8. Beneath another pile of stones

Roulston Scar and Hood Hill. Copyright NYMNPA.

We’re now well into our new Historic England funded Monuments for the Future project which is looking to ensure a sustainable future for the conservation of monuments in the North York Moors. We’ll have regular posts on the historic environment during 2019 starting with a look at hillforts in the next couple of weeks.

9. What might have been

We’re already looking forward to spring and that includes the blooming of the surviving populations of native wild daffodils that can be seen in Farndale and other dales in the North York Moors.

10. Bad news

Check, Clean, Dry campaign poster

What you can do to help … always follow biosecurity guidelines and advice.

Window into the past

Claire Bending – Lead Land Management Adviser

As part of the working up of conservation plans for the Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme (currently under development) we’ve been looking at available historic maps. Such maps can provide a view of the past landscape illustrating land use and field boundary patterns.

We’re not trying to revert the landscape back to how it was two hundred years ago, but there may be opportunities to re-establish habitats overcome by agricultural improvement and to restore relict features of conservation value. Examples of this might be recreating a hay meadow, planting new trees on a site which used to be woodland, or reinstating a natural meander in a watercourse that had previously been straightened.

We have digital access to early editions of Ordnance Survey maps. The earliest being the 1st edition 6 inch to one mile mapping from the 1850s. It seems incredible that if you overlay a modern Ordnance Survey map, the two maps separated by 170 years match up pretty perfectly. I have a feeling our Victorian counterparts would be insulted if they knew we thought it might be anything less, but to my lazy modern day brain it does seem incredible that the entire country could be mapped so precisely to the last inch without GPS, laser lines or aerial photography.

For maps from before the 1850s we went to the North Yorkshire County Record Office. They hold the Feversham Collection which is full of information on the Feversham Estate, which over time has included Bilsdale (within the Ryevitalise project area), Bransdale and Farndale as well as the townships of Helmsley and Kirkbymoorside.

Modern day Bilsdale. Copyright NYMNPA.

Amongst the collection are two surveys that feature Bilsdale; one by Tukes and Ayer drawn up in 1826,  and commissioned by Charles Duncombe, 1st Baron Feversham (1764 – 1841); and another includes a painstakingly drawn map of Bilsdale from 1781, by William Calvert and commissioned by Charles Slingsby Duncombe (???? – 1803).

The 1781 map is particularity informative as it is still relatively early on in the agricultural ‘revolution’ period that came about in the century following 1750, when a huge sea change occurred in farming, fuelled by the enclosure acts, improving efficiencies and profits for landowners. The landscape altered with open common land enclosed, fields reconfigured with straight walls, land drainage organised, new roads built to improve transport, and conifer plantations planted to produce wood.

Compare the two maps below of Cam House, Bilsdale – one is an extract from the 1781 map, and the other of the same place seventy six years later, in 1857 as drawn on the 1st edition OS map.

Barely a boundary has remained immune to the straightening process. Although replacing the earlier, wiggly ad-hoc walls with grid-like boundaries was hugely labour intensive, the gains in the longer term through enabling horse plough teams to utilise the entire field area, therefore maximising production, were great.

William Calvert’s map is also of interest for all the field names recorded on the map – for the Tukes and Ayer survey field names were recorded in separate field books.

Field names are sometimes related to the use of the field, such as Cow pasture, Milking field, Corn close, Lime kiln field and Lear field (Lear is another word for a scythe). They can also be descriptive of the place, including words like Holm (the land in a river bend, or low lying land by the river), Syke (stream), Sievey (rushy), Heights, Stoney, Loaning (lane) or Thwaite (clearing).

Other names refer to the vegetation; Birk (birch), Hollin (holly), Eller (alder), Broom, Brier. Sometimes the names reference annoying insects often found in hollows – Loppy hole (Lop was an old word for a flea, but maybe in this case meant ticks) and Midge hole.

There are also a few references to field shape, which is interesting as there is one called Four nook’d (cornered) field. By the 19th century, most fields had four corners but in 1781 four corners was notable because fields either had a myriad of corners or rounded boundaries or both. Other field names give a clue to industries – Collier intake (related to the local small-scale coal mining) or Tenter close (tenters were frames for stretching drying cloth), Cinder field/Smithy hill (reference iron smelting and iron working).

Finally there are some field names that are just plain enigmatic – Camel hill, Slatern Field and Sweetheart Field. Answers on a postcard please!

Extract from map of Bilsdale from 1781, by William Calvert. From Feversham Collection, North Yorkshire County Record Office.Ryevitalise LPS logos

A Ryevitalise Carol

In a desperate attempt to come up with a Christmas themed blog post – we’ve fallen back on an old favourite and adapted it for our own ends again. We’ve crow barred some of our themes for the Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme into The Twelve Days of Christmas – please ignore the lack of logic, any hint of a reasonable timescale and the very clunky meter. 

The Twelve Days of Christmas
as adapted by Anne-Louise Orange, Ryevitalise Programme Manager

On the first day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, an Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the second day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, two writhing lamprey, and an Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the third day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and an Alcathoe bat in a veteran tree.

On the fourth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey and an Alcathoe bat in a veteran tree.

On the fifth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the sixth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the seventh day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, seven salmon spawning, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the eighth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, eight walks in circles, seven salmon spawning, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the ninth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, nine wooded wonders, eight walks in circles, seven salmon spawning, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the tenth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, ten engaged farmers, nine wooded wonders, eight walks in circles, seven salmon spawning, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the eleventh day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, eleven invertebrates flourishing, ten engaged farmers, nine wooded wonders, eight walks in circles, seven salmon spawning, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.

On the twelfth day of Christmas Ryevitalise gave to me, twelve beautiful vistas, ten engaged farmers, nine wooded wonders, eight walks in circles, seven salmon spawning, six bird species thriving, five historic mills (pause for effect), four white-clawed crayfish, three enchanting rivers, two writhing lamprey, and a Alcathoe bat in a Veteran Tree.Sheep going somewhere, in a wintery Bilsdale. Copyright Roy McGhie, NYMNPA.

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year

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Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme logo

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Revitalising the Rye

Tom Stephenson, External Funding Officer

There must be something in the water in the North York Moors, having just started delivering the This Exploited Land of Iron Landscape Partnership Scheme, the National Park Authority and its partners* have also been successful at the first stage of securing a further £2 million of Heritage Lottery Fund money to develop our next Landscape Partnership SchemeRyevitalise.

The River Rye and its tributaries rise on the moorland of the North York Moors, flowing through fast and clear upland becks that carve out steep sided dales until the land flattens and the river slows and broadens taking on the character of the undulating Howardian Hills and the flat lowlands of the Vale of Pickering. The Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme under development will help appreciate and enhance the Rye’s verdant landscape and clear waters which have been prized for millennia for their beauty and tranquillity resulting in a more natural, better functioning and better understood landscape.

Planned projects will cover four themes:

  • Water Environment, looking at aquatic habitats of the Rye and rare and threatened species;
  • Water Quality, working with land-owners and managers to reduce pollution;
  • Water Level Management, working alongside our delivery partners to harness natural processes to manage the sources and pathways of flood waters; and
  • Reconnecting People, improving the understanding of the river landscape by telling the story of its evolution and helping people to protect their heritage.

Without wanting to spoil the surprise of future blog posts, below are just some of the particular issues we are aiming to address through Ryevitalise scheme projects if we’re lucky enough to be successful in our Stage 2 application due in October 2018.

The wet…

Water is the major theme of Ryevitalise. Through the Ryevitalise scheme, from the high moorlands to the lowland wetlands, we will identify priority areas of riparian habitat for restoration to ensure existing high-value habitats (and their species) are in positive management and can act as nodes from which to extend outwards by creating ‘stepping stones’ and connections between these habitat sites.

Wetter still, we will assess the geomorphology and key features of the aquatic environment and target areas where aquatic habitats could be improved by creating changes to the channel through creating gravel bars, by placing debris to create slacks or by making changes to river bank profile. This work will include a survey of the habitats and species of the oxbow lakes in the lower Rye, and also the collecting and analysis of sediment cores to look for valuable paleoecological data which might shed light on how the local landscape formed.

The dry…

We have previously reported on the problems that fluctuating water levels in the River Rye
in Duncombe Park has on the White-clawed crayfish, the only native crayfish in the UK, White-clawed crayfish - during 2016 rescue in Duncombe Park. Copyright NYMNPA.which is suffering from a “perfect storm” of threats. Ryevitalise will prioritise protective measures for the existing population and carry out a feasibility study to identify where potential local ark sites might be located. Ark sites for White-clawed crayfish would allow populations to become established in isolation, separated from the threat of non-native crayfish and the crayfish plague they can carry.

The small…

Alcathoe bat. Copyright Cyril Schonbachler.One of the Rye catchment’s smallest inhabitants is the Alcathoe bat. Relatively new to science, having been first identified in 2001 and only recently becoming the latest addition to the UK bat family, this little creature has only been found at two other sites in the UK so far. Ryevitalise will seek to establish a deeper knowledge of where colonies of the Alcathoe bat and other key bat populations are, along with the requirements to support their survival.

The tall…

At the other end of the size spectrum and intrinsically linked to bats are some of the Rye catchment’s largest residents – its ancient and veteran trees. The area is a national hotspot for these giants that not only give an air of majesty to the landscape as living witnesses to history but also provide important habitat for many invertebrate species as well as providing important roosting sites for Rye bat populations.

The old…

Not only is the Rye catchment home to iconic built heritage like Rievaulx Abbey, Rievaulx Terrace, Duncombe Park and Nunnington Hall but it also contains a wealth of less obvious heritage that traces vernacular land use and tells the story of the working River Rye. Working with local history groups, Ryevitalise will record the remaining evidence of man’s relationship with the river over the centuries, surveying and recording the traces of the former agricultural and industrial settlements along the river banks. Accurate 3D models will be produced of the principal remaining watermills, iron working sites, water races and leats. Essential conservation and consolidation work will be identified from the surveys carried out.

The new…

Meanders in Rye near Sproxton - can see the water crowfoot beds within the river, September 2016. Copyright North East Yorkshire Ecological Data Centre.Like a lot of watercourses, it is not practical to access the river in its entirety at ground level. So as part of the Ryevitalise scheme an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight will record the entire 50km main river from its moorland origins all the way downstream to where it
meets the River Derwent. This will produce an invaluable record and will provide an insightful journey along the river for local communities, highlighting how this vital artery connects them all. Tailored sections of flight data will be made freely available to local schools, businesses, and community groups as a community resource; it will also form part of the scheme’s wider education programme.

We are all really excited about the next steps in developing the Ryevitalise scheme; the opportunity to make the most of the wealth of habitats, species and history surrounding the river; the potential to make a lasting difference to this wonderful landscape, and the chance to create a real splash.

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* Partners currently include East Yorkshire Rivers Trust, English Heritage, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Howardian Hills AONB, National Trust, Natural England, North Yorkshire County Council, Ryedale District Council, Woodland Trust, Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, as well as local communities.