Lest we forget

Beth Davies – Building Conservation Officer

A hundred years ago the First World War was into its fourth calendar year with no end in sight; Germany announced on 31 January 1917 that unrestricted submarine warfare would commence the following day and all ships in the war zone would become targets…

It is very difficult for us now to appreciate the full horror of what the servicemen who fought in the war experienced. Similarly we can only begin to imagine what it must have been like for those at home left behind without fathers, husbands, brothers and sons.

In the aftermath of the First World War thousands of built memorials to the dead were erected across Britain. These communal memorials acted as shared totems for society suffering devastating loss and in the face of the official policy of not repatriating the dead. They provided an embodiment of the common grief felt and the validation of sacrifice, and still today provide a tangible reminder of the real impact of war. Whereas the huge numbers of dead and injured are difficult to grasp, the individual names of the local people lost are poignant and tangible.

War Memorials draw particular public interest and warrant serious consideration for listing. Historic England is particularly keen during the centenary of the First World War to increase protection of unlisted memorials. Following on from the listing of the Commondale Shepherds’ Memorial last year, we are pleased that two further war memorials in the North York Moors have been afforded Grade II listed status as part Historic England’s drive to protect for posterity these meaningful and evocative structures.

Glaisdale War Memorial. Copyright Mel Gibbs.Glaisdale War Memorial was unveiled on 4 December 1920 by Major General Sir James K Trotter, FCB, CMG. It is an elegant example of a Latin cross set on a tapering octagonal section shaft and displays a high level of craftsmanship with carved decorative details and fine lettering. Its prominent location on a small green with expansive views north down Glaisdale contributes to its impact in recalling the memory of the dead and where they belonged. The plinth at the base of the shaft reads ‘TO THE MEMORY OF THE MEN OF GLAISDALE WHO FELL IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1919 JESU BLEST GRANT THEM IN THY LOVE TO REST’. There are thirteen names: John Boas, William J M Child, James Jefferson, John Pearson, Ralph Scarth, Charles E Scanlon, John H Scarth, Frederick Scarth, Francis R Scarth, William Ward, Ernest Wilson, Pennock Winspear, Harry Winspear.

The Commondale War Memorial was unveiled by Lord Guisborough at an ecumenical ceremony held on 31 August 1921. It was designed by WH Earl of Danby and made by J Ford of Castleton. The memorial commemorates nine local servicemen who died during the First World War including the two shepherds commemorated by the aforementioned Grade II listed Shepherds’ Memorial.  The names are Thomas Monk, Samuel Lawson, Thomas Gibson, Robert H Leggott, William Hill, Frederick W Robinson, Charles E Foster, Alfred Cockerill, David Johnson. It comprises a stone Latin cross on a short Commondale War Memorial. Copyright Hidden Teesside.tapering square-sectioned shaft which rises from a plinth set on a four-stage square base. Set into the plinth are unusual, brown salt-glazed stoneware tablets probably made by the local London and Cleveland Fire Brick Co Ltd Brick and Pipe Works. On the main facing and rear tablets are stamped the words ‘IN HONOURED MEMORY OF THE MEN OF COMMONDALE WHO GAVE THEIR LIVES FOR GOD, KING AND COUNTRY, IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918. THEIR NAME SHALL LIVE FOR EVER AND THEIR GLORY SHALL NOT BE BLOTTED OUT. LEST WE FORGET’.

Commondale War Memorial. Copyright Hidden Teesside.

For anyone interested in finding out more about the war memorials in the North York Moors and the men commemorated please visit the Roll of Honour website.  For communities wishing to carry out repairs to their War Memorial it’s worth contacting the War Memorials Trust as grant aid and advice are often available. For further advice about how to apply to have a War Memorial listed please contact the National Park Authority’s Building Conservation team on 01439 772700.

Last year’s top 5 posts

Whether by accident or design these were our top 5 posts in 2016, according to the number of views.

Woodland to be thinned - copyright NYMNPA

1.The aesthetics of trees

If you’re a land manager and you’re interested in grant to help you create, manage or improve your own woodland masterpiece – here’s a link to the national funding that’s available. Watch out for the set application windows because they’re often quite short.

The current adaptation of The Crown, Helmsley - copyright NYMNPA.

2.Historic Pub Culture

As part of the renovation of The Crown Hotel in Helmsley the building was subject to a re-assessment of the development of its historic fabric by Colin Briden, an Historic Buildings Archaeologist who reported in April 2016. His report concluded…

Although partly demolished in the 18th century to bring it ‘up to date’, and extensively refurbished in the 20th century to make it look ‘olde worlde’, the building retains considerable evidence for a high-status late mediaeval timber framed house of two jettied storeys (where upper storeys project beyond the lower storey) and attics in a prominent position. The house is of an unusually large scale. Other comparable size houses in the wider area are from much later dates.

Now that the building is free from the unfortunate results of the 20th century remodelling it is possible to see it as it really is – ‘the battered remnant of late mediaeval construction work on the grand scale carried out by an unusually wealthy owner’.

In 1478 Helmsley was sold to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, later Richard III; it reverted to the de Roos family on his death. The name of the subsequent hotel is suggestive of a reference to this short lived but significant royal ownership.

In its latest adaptation, the building is now a shop.

capture

3.Face to face with the past

Raven - the Watcher by JestePhotography. http://jestephotography.deviantart.com/art/Raven-The-Watcher-532656250.

4.A ‘Gothic’ icon

Historic England survey of earthworks at Stoupe Brow alum works - copyright Historic England

5.Cliff edge archaeology

Following our work in 2014-15 (reported in early 2016), we were pleased that Historic England were able to remove one of the coastal alum working Scheduled Monuments from the Heritage at Risk register because we had fully recorded those parts of the monument which were under threat. However, four other Scheduled alum working sites remain on Historic England’s Heritage at Risk Register despite our efforts to record some of their most vulnerable features. So what next?

Working with Whitby Museum and specialists from Historic England, we held a seminar last spring bringing together a group of dedicated people with a strong interest or connection to the coastal alum working sites – landowners, archaeologists, academics and private researchers – to review what we know about the alum industry, to decide what we don’t understand and to look for a way forward to manage the risk to the sites under threat and ensure that we do not lose the valuable information held within them. One of the ideas emerging from the seminar was a further excavation project with an emphasis on engagement and interpretation as well as research.

Archaeological excavations take considerable planning and funds to ensure that they are carried out to a high standard and achieve objectives without causing accidental damage, so it can be a slow process getting started. We are now working towards setting up a project to investigate one of the sites which we didn’t include in the investigations in 2014-15 – the alum works at Stoupe Brow, near Ravenscar. An extensive system of reservoirs and water leats (dug channels) was revealed on the nearby Fylingdales Moor after the 2003 wildfire and we know that this water management system supplied the needs of the alum processing at Stoupe Brow, but other than that we currently know very little about this site. Historic England recently completed a topographic survey of the earthworks so we can now see how the site was laid out, but not how it operated. The site still includes its alum house (where the final processing to produce alum crystals was carried out) and there is still a general gap in knowledge when it comes to how alum houses functioned. As well as trying to discover more about the practical operations at the site the project will record the structures which are currently being gradually lost over the cliff edge. A big advantage of this particular site is that it is more accessible and less dangerous compared to some of the other coastal alum working sites – providing great opportunities for volunteers and visitors.

The first stage of the project is producing a project proposal which will outline what we want to do and how much it will cost, and this is expected by the end of this winter. The next step will be using the proposal to generate partnership support and seek funding. It is early days yet, but we hope this will develop into an exciting project – watch out for further posts as our plans progress.

Mags Waughman, Monument Management Scheme Officer

Sounding like Christmas

Clair Shields – Planning Policy Officer/Building Conservation Officer

Now that the lights are twinkling and the decorations are up, everywhere you look it is all about Christmas. So with this thought in mind I was intrigued as to what festive sounding names the built environment can offer at this time of year. Below are a few Christmassy sounding historic features found around the North York Moors

Christmas Tree Field, Jingleby – This is a double hit of a Christmas sounding site within Dalby Forest. The archaeology of the wider area is significant and complex. The area includes Bronze Age round barrows, and a number of embanked pit alignments (prehistoric linear boundary earthworks) as well as later banked field boundaries which might be connected with rabbit warrening. There is also documentary record of a Jenglebee Cross but its exact location isn’t known.

Goose I’ Th’ Nest is one of a row of nine boundary stones on Wheeldale Moor, described as a natural boulder or deeply buried slab with letters ‘PCE’ and an illegible date.  Good Goose Thorn is another boundary stone, possibly of medieval origin, located on the parish boundary between Loftus and Glaisdale. Its specific name is recorded on the
Example of a boundary stone on the North York Moors.1st edition 6 inch Ordnance Survey Map of 1853

Although these particular boundary stones are not Listed or Scheduled, there are many that are. Boundary stones identify the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary, especially a change in direction, and are a feature of the North York Moors. They are often marked on the most relevant face with the landowner’s or parish initials to indicate the ownership. Like waymarker stones they would have been important features for people having to cross the moors, defining the route to follow in a landscape which has very few points of reference.

There are a number of features called Stocking – Stocking Craggs, Stocking Dike,
Stocking House, WesterdaleStocking Lane and Stocking Hill. There are a couple of Stocking Houses – this Stocking House, to the north-west of Westerdale, is a group of unlisted buildings. Although not listed, together these buildings are typical of a traditional North York Moors moorland farmstead – small in scale, linear in form and of stone and pantile construction.

Frost Hall in Farndale is a farmstead with a range of listed farm buildings and a listed
farmhouse dated 1826. The range includes a threshing barn with a horse engine house Frost Hall, Farndale(for horse powered machinery) attached to the rear. Close by the farmstead there are a number of staddle stones (arranged to lift structures like granaries or haystacks off the ground), the remains of a saw pit (in which to operate a two handed vertical saw for timber) and also a chambered sheep fold which has been used to hold bee hives.

Holly Cottage, Holly Lodge, Holly House – there are plenty of Listed Buildings with this name, presumably there had been a holly tree nearby or otherwise the name sometimes
derives from the word ‘holy’. This one is Holly Cottage in Lythe, a characterful Grade II
eighteenth century house. This building is a good example of how a building has evolved Holly Cottage, Lytheover the years – probably originally a traditional longhouse it has clearly been raised at some point in its history and also extended. The variation in windows style, sizes and their location on this elevation all add to its unique character and adds to its special interest and architectural character and is typical example of the North York Moors vernacular.

Winter landscape: coming over the top. Copyright - David Renwick, NYMNPA.

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year from the North York Moors National Park

Practical Chemistry

Aside

Following on from our last blog post about lime mortars and traditional buildings – there are a series of upcoming workshops over the next few months on using hot mixed and other traditional lime mortars, aimed at practitioners in the north of England.

Further information – lime-mortar-workshops-january-to-march-2017

The Chemistry of Buildings

Building Conservation Team

The Building Conservation team at the National Park have a vested interest in keeping the area’s traditional buildings in good repair so as to maintain and secure this particular element of the North York Moors’ special qualities. We have a new Advice Note on using lime mortars, the rudiments of which are explained below.

Most buildings in the North York Moors were traditionally constructed using stone and lime mortars (to bind the stonework together), often with earth and rubble filled cores. Lime was used for bedding and pointing the stonework and for rendering. Rendering with mortar was used to cover poorer-quality masonry underneath or to make a building more weather proof, for example on the coast. Most historic buildings were constructed from materials found locally and this contributes to what is distinctive about the ‘local vernacular’.

When it comes to repairing a surviving traditional building it is important to understand how they work. These buildings are usually of simple construction and built using breathable materials. Bricks and stone are bonded with flexible and permeable mortars made of lime and sand which allow the building to ‘breathe’. When it rains moisture is absorbed into the external surface but is then able to evaporate through the more porous pointing or render. Using a lime based mortar or render for repairs nowadays means that this process can continue.

In contrast modern cement mortars and renders along with plastic paints, waterproof sealants and damp-proof courses all act as barriers to a traditional wall’s natural ability to breathe. The trapping of moisture within permeable materials like stone can exacerbate the very problems these products are trying to resolve. The use of cement-based mortars can have a significant negative visual (photo below left) and physical impact on traditional historic buildings. The photo below (right) shows the extent of stone decay caused by the use of a cement mortar. Because the cement is much harder than the stone, moisture cannot evaporate through the joints and instead evaporates through the stone causing it to ‘weather away’ through premature erosion.

You can usually tell what type of mortar has been used most recently; cement based mortars tend to be dark grey and hard in appearance and texture whereas lime based mortars are generally lighter and softer in appearance and texture. Because they allow the surrounding masonry to dry out the colour of the stone will also lighten.

There are a number of different types of lime mortars/renders. Replacing like for like is important.

Non-hydraulic lime is the raw material produced when limestone (calcium carbonate) is fired, often called ‘quicklime’ (calcium oxide). It is sold in a slaked form (with water) as lime putty which is then mixed with an aggregate (e.g. sand) to produce mortars and plasters. These putty limes possess good breathability and flexibility and are ideal for use with soft porous materials allowing the maximum permeability.

Hydraulic lime comes in powdered form and will start to set as soon as it comes into contact with water. It is ideal for use in wet or very exposed situations or where there is a need for a higher compressive strength or a quick set. Hydraulic limes come in a variety of strengths e.g. NHL2, NHL3.5 and NHL5 – the higher the number the less flexibility and breathability the mortar will have.

Hydrated or bagged lime is a form of non-hydraulic lime which is sold as a powder. It is sold by builders’ merchants as an additive for cement mixes in order to give modern cement mixes more plasticity and workability. It is generally considered to be inferior to lime putty, not least because an unknown proportion will have reacted with carbon dioxide and set by the time it reaches the site.

Hot-mixed lime is made when quicklime is mixed with water and aggregate simultaneously. The vast majority of historic lime mortars were probably hot-mixed. There are several benefits of using a hot-lime mortar: it can produce cleaner work as there is less leaching, it has a easily-workable elasticity which produces solid and full joints, it appears to be more breathable and therefore more compatible with stonework, and it has potential for use in colder weather notwithstanding the requirement for protection from freezing during the curing (setting) process.

A standard pointing mix consists of a lime mortar mix of 1:2½ lime:sand (sand mix of 50% sharp sand and 50% builders sand) for a slightly recessed bagged finish. However there may be times when a bespoke mix is required such as when different colour sand is needed to match existing historic mortar.

Repointing is only needed where mortar has become loose, decayed or eroded to an extent that water has started to penetrate the joints. If the mortar is firm or so hard that it needs to be chiselled out then it is best to leave it in place as removal could damage the masonry. The repointing of delicate ashlar joints (made out of worked stone) is not generally advisable as the joints are so fine that getting old pointing out can lead to irreversible damage of the masonry.

If repointing is necessary joints should be carefully raked out manually or by non-electric tools (no angle grinders) to a depth equal to one and half times the width of the joint and never less than 35 mm. Great care must be taken to keep the edges of the stone intact and joints should never be widened. Work should not be carried out when there is a danger of frost or heavy rain (this is less important when using a hot lime mix). Mortar must be protected from drying out too quickly from wind, rain and frost by protecting the area. Rain must never be allowed to strike the mortar and stonework until the setting process is complete.

The mortar should be stippled as the initial set takes place, with a stiff bristle brush, to produce a textured appearance capable of shedding water and slightly set back from the stone outer surface to ensure the full arris (edge) of each stone shows clearly in relief.

The photo below (left) illustrates a good lime mortar mix and pointing method. The aggregate used in the mix has been exposed by brushing back the pointing to a recessed finish which allows the stone to be the dominant feature. The other photo below (right) shows historic pointing on an old outbuilding where roof tiles were used to fill in larger gaps between the stones, adding to its particular character and appearance.

If you need further information, or advice on sources of materials, or any clarification regarding the need for listed building consent or planning permission before re-pointing or rendering a traditional building, get in touch with our Building Conservation Team.

A to Z: a horde of Hs

H

HANDALE ABBEY

Handale Abbey Farm nestles in a sleepy valley near Grinkle Park in the north of the North York Moors. On first glance there is little to indicate its dramatic past but closer inspection reveals clues to its history…

The farmstead was once the site of a Cistercian Priory and home to a small community of nuns. Handale Priory was founded in 1133 and is thought to have stood somewhere near
the existing farmhouse. Nuns from Rosedale Abbey in the south of the North York Moors Handale Abbey - mediaeval cross shaft base and tomb lid - copyright NYMNPA.were sent to this outlying subsidiary house as a penance, presumably because of the difficult journey required to get there over the moors and possibly due to the hard day to day life once they got there although little documentary evidence survives to help us understand what life would have been like for the women who lived and worked at Handale Priory.

In the centuries following the Reformation and the dissolution of the monasteries, the Priory’s surviving mill building was used for the manufacture of cotton undergarments and the Priory ruins were incorporated into a new farmhouse and walled garden. Evidence of the Priory can be seen today in the medieval fish pond to the south of the walled garden and the medieval tomb lid and cross base which have been relocated to the base of the medieval wall to the left of the farmhouse. There is a small carved stone that stands next to the tomb which is a memorial to the last cart horse at the farm before diesel engines took over.

There is also a less historic more fantastical tale associated with the site too. Local legend tells of a ‘loathsome serpent’ that lived in the area and would steal beautiful maidens from nearby Loftus, bringing them back to its lair at Handale to devour. One day a brave knight called Scaw killed the serpent and rescued one of the beautiful maidens called Emma Beckwith from the serpent’s lair. The couple wed and presumably lived happily ever after. The nearby wood is known as Scaw’s Wood. In 1830, along with 16 other burials (possibly remains from the nuns’ graveyard) a coffin was found on the site with a picture of a sword and the words ‘snake slayer’ carved in the lid. The skeleton inside was apparently holding a four foot long sword and so naturally was believed to be Scaw himself.

In 2011 the LEADER Programme funded the repairs of the disused, listed walled garden at
the site which was in a parlous state and classified as being at ‘extreme risk’. The project Handale Abbey Farm - bringing the Walled Garden back to life - copyright NYMNPA.also commissioned an imaginatively designed interpretation panel and bench, and a contemporary gate to keep cattle out. At this current time permissive access into the garden is still extant and visitors are welcome. Along with the local apple varieties introduced into the reinvigorated garden there were also initially bee hives. The current owners would be keen to host new hives if anyone is interested in producing Handale Honey.

HEATHER and HEATH

The North York Moors is renowned for its heather – the largest continuous expanse of heather moorland in England and Wales – which blooms purple during the summer months (July/August). The display is mainly made up of three species – Bell heather (Erica cinerea), Ling heather (Calluna vulgaris) and Cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix). The main difference between a heather and a heath plant is their leaf structure. In addition there is a record of another heath plant in one location on the North York Moors – St Dabeoc’s Heath (Daboecia cantabrica) – which is more familiar in the west of Ireland.

Heather moorland - copyright NYMNPA.

The moorland habitats of the North York Moors are dominated by heather and heath. The dry climate in the east of England favours NVC (National Vegetation Classification) types H9 Calluna vulgarisDeschampsia flexuosa, with some H10 Calluna vulgarisErica cinerea heath on well-drained areas and large areas of H12 Calluna vulgarisVaccinium myrtillus heath on steeper slopes. However there are also smaller areas of M16 Erica tetralixSphagnum compactum wet heath. From North York Moors Special Area of Conservation site details.

HEDGEROWS

Hedgerows are man-made lines of trees managed and manipulated to demarcate boundaries and to control stock. Every hedgerow will have had a purpose and every hedgerow has a value. Hedgerows can develop their own understorey of plants and provide shelter and food for invertebrates, birds and animals. They act as living connecting corridors between other habitats and are important visual features in an English landscape. Hedgerows can last as hedgerows for a very long time as long as they continue to be managed and the longer they last the more biodiverse they can become – one new plant species establishes in a hedge about every 100 years.

Old roadside hedge, Bilsdale - copyright Ami Walker, NYMNPA.Because of the importance of hedgerows in the North York Moors we’re offering grants to help land managers regenerate and gap up their valued hedgerows.

Where hedgerows no longer have an agricultural purpose they might be seen as a hindrance to modern land management. To remove an agricultural hedge more than 30 years old a land manager must apply to the Local Planning Authority for a Hedgerow Removal Notice (under the Hedgerow Regulations 1997); for the North York Moors National Park we’re the Local Planning Authority. When this happens we need to establish whether the hedgerow is ‘important’ according to a number of set criteria that consider both its ecological and historical value. If the hedgerow is ‘important’ the hedgerow is retained and if it isn’t, the hedgerow can be removed. There are very few applications for hedgerow removal in the North York Moors.

HERBERT READ

Herbert Read (1893 – 1968) was born at Muscoates Grange in Ryedale, just to the south of the North York Moors. As a child, following the death of his father, his family moved from the pre WW1 countryside to the city (Leeds and Halifax to be precise). The feelings engendered of loss and contrast had a profound effect on him.

During his lifetime Herbert Read was an army officer, a bank worker, a museum curator, an academic, a journal and book editor, a writer, a poet, a theorist and critic. He co-founded the Institute of Contemporary Arts and was President of the Society for Education in Art. He was a prodigious thinker and believed in art as a necessity for society. He saw art as a natural organic phenomenon that comes out of a need for expression and championed modern British sculptors and artists of the mid-20th century. Despite being a theoretical anarchist he was knighted in 1953.

Herbert Read returned to Ryedale in his later years. Here he wrote about his recollections and current thoughts, now that he was back.

Sir Herbert Read - Leeds University Library Special Collections - https://library.leeds.ac.uk/special-collections

From Between the Riccall and the Rye: selected writings on Ryedale from Herbert Read’s poetry and prose (© The Herbert Read Trust):

“I think I heard those hooves again the night my father died, but of this I am not certain; perhaps I shall remember when I come to relate that event, for now the memory of those years, which end shortly after my tenth birthday, comes fitfully, when the proper associations are aroused. If only I can recover the sense and uncertainty of those innocent years, years in which we seemed not so much to live as to be lived by forces outside us, by the wind and trees and moving clouds and all the mobile engines of our expanding world – then I am convinced I shall possess a key to much that has happened to me in this other world of conscious living. The echoes of my life which I find in my early childhood are too many to be dismissed as vain coincidences; but it is perhaps my conscious life which is the echo, the only real experiences in life being those lived with a virgin sensibility – so that we only hear a tone once, only see a colour once, see, hear, touch, taste and smell everything but once, the first time. All life is an echo of our first sensations, and we build up our consciousness our whole mental life, by variations and combinations of these elementary sensations. But it is more complicated than that, for the senses apprehend not only colours and tones and shapes, but also patterns and atmospheres, and our first discovery of these determines the larger patterns and subtler atmospheres of all our subsequent existence.”

HIGHLAND CATTLE

Highland Cattle are great at conservation grazing, they’re particularly hardy, and they’re also extremely placid.

There are currently five Highland Cattle on the coastal slope at Common Cliff (also known as Beast Cliff) near Ravenscar. Common Cliff is a 44 hectare area of undercliff habitat at Ravenscar. The site is designated as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) and a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) for its seacliff grassland communities; however these grasslands are being encroached upon by rank grasses, bracken and scrub. So a 5-year conservation grazing programme was introduced in 2015, hence the cattle.

Highland Cattle grazing Common Cliff - copyright NYMNPA.

Grazing cattle on the site has three particular effects:

Defoliation – The cattle are ideal for removing long, coarse vegetation – they wrap their tongues around the vegetation pulling tufts into their mouths which leaves a tussocky appearance. Removing this coarse vegetation will allow wildflowers, such as the Common Spotted Orchid, to flourish. Cattle are less selective grazers (compared to sheep or ponies) and do not eat flower heads, unlike sheep.

Trampling – Cattle are heavy animals and as they walk around the site, they trample the vegetation, creating pathways through the bracken and scrub, opening up the dense sward and suppressing growth of these unwanted species. Hoof marks can also create germination niches – areas where wild flower seeds can germinate.

Dunging/manuring – Dunging returns nutrient back to the soil whilst also providing a food source for invertebrates.

Because of their hardiness the cattle can remain on the sea edge site throughout the year. They are also very sure-footed, a must for grazing on coastal slopes! The stock is checked regularly, the site has been fenced to help manage the animals, and there is a year round water supply, to ensure that the cattle stay happy and healthy.

 HISTORIC ENGLAND

Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is the Government’s statutory adviser on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets. This includes archaeology on land and under water, historic building sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. The National Park Authority works closely with Historic England to achieve shared objectives, recent examples of partnership working include:

Traditional Estates Craft Apprenticeship Project (2012-2014) – In partnership with the University of York, and Historic England we launched a new apprenticeship scheme which offered three young apprentices hands-on experience in a range of building maintenance and conservation skills. Hosted by Estates in the North York Moors the apprentices gained the specialist skills needed for conserving the nationally important built heritage of the National Park whilst achieving their NVQ Level 2 at York College. The initial project was so successful we’re hoping to follow it up with a new Trailblazer Apprenticeship.

New Listings – Historic England advises the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, on which heritage assets are nationally important and should therefore be protected by designation. Buildings and structures which meet the criteria for national protection are listed. This protection system has been in place since 1947 and operates under The Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990. The test for listing is architectural or historic special interest, with the final decision to list being taken by Government. Recently within the North York Moors Historic England has listed a rare surviving Clapper Bridge and a Battle of the Somme War Memorial on Commondale Moor.

Monument Management Scheme – This is a partnership initiative largely funded by Historic England which has been running in North York Moors since 2009; we’re now into Phase 3. The essential aim of MMS is to improve the condition of scheduled monuments and ultimately to remove ‘At Risk’ monuments from the Heritage at Risk Register, using the most practical means available. The current Register includes 54 of the National Park’s 841 Scheduled Monuments (as of November 2015) – a big reduction from the 198 which were ‘At Risk’ when the MMS began in 2009.

Buildings at Risk Survey Pilot – Using funding from Historic England, we created a NYMNPA Buildings at Risk AppNYMNPA Buildings at Risk Appsmart phone survey application to help with condition surveys of listed buildings. The App allows volunteers to remotely access information about the National Park’s listed buildings and enables on-site condition assessments to be carried out and data automatically updated. With a runners-up prize from the Campaign for National Parks’ Park Protector Awards, we were able to refine the App and Historic England have since used the concept to create their own version which is now being trialled prior to launch.

Grant provision and advice – Joint funding projects between the National Park Authority and Historic England have enabled the removal of several key buildings from the Buildings at Risk Register recently, like the Ionic Temple and Nelson Gates at Duncombe Park in Helmsley. The Authority also liaises closely with Historic England in providing coordinated expert advice to support the conservation of important historical sites in the North York Moors, such as Whorlton Castle Gatehouse and Arden Mill on the River Rye.

Whorlton Castle Gatehouse - copyright Paul D Hunter.

Historic England have lots of useful advice notes and guidance on managing and maintaining our built heritage, for example suggesting sensitive and practical ways for home owners to improve the energy efficiency of listed buildings such as draught-proofing of windows, secondary glazing, cavity walls and insulation.

HOBS

A lot of cultures have their own ‘other folk’. These other folk have lots of different names such as Fairies, Trolls and Goblins; in the North York Moors they are known as Hobs. Hobs are little and aren’t renowned for their good looks. They can be very helpful and are keen to work hard, just as long as you are grateful in return. If you’re not suitably grateful or you try and trick a Hob – woe betide you.

The National Park has a team of Volunteers known as The Hobs. They’re not necessarily little or lacking in good looks but they do work hard.

Previously on the North York Moors A to Z … A, B, C, D, E, F, G

Not so distant

To mark the centenary of the start of the Battle of the Somme on 1 July 1916 fifteen war memorials across the country have received new or upgraded listings from Historic England.

The Battle of the Somme in northern France was made up of a series of offensives and counter offensives which lasted 141 days, and the aftermath was an approximate one million dead and wounded.

One of the newly protected memorials is on Commondale Moor – the Commondale Shepherds’ Memorial. It is a simple and short stone pillar which commemorates two men out of a million – Alf Cockerill and Robbie Leggott. They were young shepherds who worked for the local Guisborough Estate and had been friends since childhood. They went together to London and enlisted in the Grenadier Guards at the outbreak of
World War I in 1914. It must have been an exciting adventure.

Alf was shot in the head in the first month of the Battle of the Somme; he did not die immediately but was declared unfit for further duty. He eventually died back in England in August 1920 at the age of 31(?) as a result of his brain injuries having never escaped from the consequences of the Battle. It is wishfully suggested his ashes are scattered close by the site of the memorial.

Robbie was killed in September 1916 aged 19, during another assault on German lines. His body was not identified and so wasn’t returned to the North York Moors.

There is a war memorial in Commondale village and both men are also recorded there. This specific memorial purposefully placed on the moorland above the village was commissioned by the daughter of the first Baron Guisborough in 1920. In the years immediately following the end of World War I recording and remembering the loss endured became a national preoccupation. The Historic England listing cites the historic interest of the memorial as ‘eloquent witness to the tragic impact of world events on the local community, and the sacrifice it made in the First World War’.

FOR REMEMBRANCE.

GUARDSMEN ROBBIE LEGGOTT KILLED IN ACTION 1916. ALF COCKERILL DIED OF WOUNDS 1920.

DUTY 1914. Poppies - copyright NYMNPA.

we’re here because we’re here

England’s Quirkiest Listed Places — Heritage Calling

Aside

Robin Hood’s Bay’s fishy collection box is included as one of the quirkiest listed structures in England in Historic England’s recent post. Historic England are asking people to help them collect local knowledge and images of the country’s listed structures.

The history of our land and its people is marked in the fabric of England’s buildings and places. The most significant of these are listed, so they can be understood and protected for the future. The List has almost 400,000 entries: barrows and bunkers, palaces and pigsties, plague crosses and piers, tower blocks and tombstones, […]

via England’s Quirkiest Listed Places — Heritage Calling

Bridging the centuries

Beth Davies – Building Conservation Officer

We have a new listed building in the National Park! It’s the clapper bridge carrying Ashfield Road/Wandels Lane across Danby Beck near Castleton – and it’s now Grade II listed. It was designated due to three principle reasons – its architecture, its historic interest and its rarity.

The Principles of Selection for Listing Buildings (Department for Culture, Media & Sport 2010) sets out how the Secretary of State determines whether a building or structure is of special architectural or historic interest and therefore merits listing. This states that most buildings and structures pre-dating 1840 should be listed. Historic England’s Listing Selection Guide for Transport Buildings (2011) notes that most pre-1840 bridges, where substantially intact, warrant serious consideration for listing.

Architecture – The earliest form of bridge typically surviving in use is the clapper bridge – large stone slabs spanning between boulders or abutments, built out of undressed stone. This example crossing Danby Beck is an interesting development of this most basic form in that it has carefully constructed abutments and piers using dressed stone. The herring-bone tooling indicates that the abutments date from the mid-C18 to the C19. The lack of masonry parapets and the general simplicity of the construction contributes to the interest.

Historic Interest – The absence of arches and the re-use of large slabs in their stead strongly suggest that this was a rebuilding of a medieval clapper bridge on the route between Castleton village and Howe Mill. The rebuilding was most likely in circa 1807 when the mill was extensively rebuilt and required improved access. All this contributes to the interest of the bridge.

Rarity – Clapper bridges are relatively rare nationally, especially multi-spanned examples carrying roads.

Clapper bridge carrying Ashfield Road/Wandels Lane across Danby Beck - copyright NYMNPA

The bridge has been adapted over time and still remains functional. The fact that the bridge was strengthened in 2006 by overlaying it with a reinforced concrete deck carrying the road surface does not significantly undermine its claim to special interest –the listing details note that the concrete and road surface are currently neither of special architectural nor historic interest.

The listing means the bridge is protected for the future in that any planned changes to its structure will need listed building consent which will ensure that the bridge’s special interest is conserved.

Making a contribution

Over the years the National Park have had a number of grant initiatives allowing us to provide grant to support projects that help achieve National Park purposes and duties and to conserve the special qualities of the North York Moors. Some of our grant schemes tend to be targeted which means we usually approach the land manager and offer the grant (for instance, to enhance habitat connectivity), and others are open to application and awarded through a competitive process.

So at the beginning of a new financial year with a new round of grants available, it’s these schemes, the ones generally open to application, which are described below.

Our Traditional Boundary Scheme provides grant assistance (up to a maximum of £2,000 per holding per year) towards the cost of rebuilding drystone walls* and plantingDerelict hedge - copyright NYMNPATBS hedge planting - copyright NYMNPA/restoring hedgerows. Traditional field boundaries are an important cultural element and landscape feature of the North York Moors. They also act as effective wildlife corridors. For more information – contact us.

Collapsed drystone walling - copyright NYMNPA

TBS restored drystone walling - copyright NYMNPA

There are lots of historic buildings in the National Park which are of great value both in terms of the landscape and cultural heritage, so we want to help ensure that as many as possible are kept in good repair. Around 3,000 buildings are specifically listed for their special architectural or historic interest. Historic Building Grants are available for Head House, before repair - copyright NYMNPAHistoric Building Grant - Head House, after repair - copyright NYMNPArepairs to Listed Buildings on the Authority’s “at risk” register. Grants are 50% of the cost of eligible works, up to a maximum of £7,500.

 

There are also 42 Conservation Areas in the National Park. These are areas within villages which have been designated because they are of particular historic or Modern downstairs window - Robin Hood's Bay - copyright NYMNPAConservation Area Enhancement Grant - downstairs window replaced, in keeping with historic character - Robin Hood's Bay - copyright NYMNPAarchitectural importance. Conservation Area Enhancement Grants are available for re-instating lost architectural features such as windows and doors and using traditional roofing materials on historic buildings, within Conservation Areas. Grants will be 50% of the cost of eligible works, up to £1,500 per project.

For more information on either of these two Building Conservation grants – see here.

Our Local Distinctiveness & Tourism Fund aims to raise the profile of the North York Moors and promote its local distinctiveness. Grants are awarded to projects in the National Park area and surroundings which increase awareness of the North York Moors brand. Ideas need to utilise the area’s local distinctiveness and at the same time ensuring that any increase in visitors has no adverse impacts. For more information – see here.

We’ve also got our Community Grant offering grant of up to £3,500 (up to 70% of total project costs) to local community groups for small scale projects which meet one of the following priorities:

    • environmental benefits e.g. recycling project or wildlife habitat improvements;
    • cultural heritage and local history conservation e.g. restoring a village monument or archiving data;
    • community facility improvements e.g. disabled access for a community building or improvements to a play area.

Projects need to show clear community benefit and value for money. This particular grant has a short application window – for 2016/17 we need to receive applications by 30 June 2016. For more information – see here.

The Community Grant is now into its fourth year. We’ve assisted a variety of functional  projects over that time, one of which was the setting up of the Farndale Film Club by providing grant towards the purchase of equipment. We’re very grateful to the Club for the following report on its first year which shows just how beneficial local community projects can be with just a little grant assistance.

Farndale Village Hall Report for North York Moors National Park

Grant awarded summer 2014 for Film Club equipment and costs – £2,791.60

Farndale Village Hall - copyright Farndale Village Hall CommitteeThe Village Hall committee were very pleased to be awarded the grant to enable us to start our own community Film Club. The equipment and licences were bought in the early part of 2015, and installed by a community member with technical, IT and audio-visual expertise, and one of our trustees who is a qualified electrician and computer expert.

Our first screening was on the 1st May 2015. The film was ‘What we did on our holidays’ – a British comedy, which was a real success. We had 24 people attending, and had organised refreshments, crisps and chocolate bars. Feedback from attendees was excellent. The blackout blinds worked really well in summer to keep the hall dark. The sound system was great, and the big screen made it feel as though you really were at the cinema!

We decided to hold monthly screenings. Information about the screenings is given in our member’s community newsletter, on an email circular, and on posters inside the hall. Members are regularly asked what films they might want to see and all suggestions are welcome.

Farndale Film Club - copyright Farndale Village Hall CommitteeWe have had a wide range so far of films, including comedies, a western and recent films like Gravity and The Imitation Game. We have held eight general monthly film nights for members, which have had 142 individual attendances.

We also held a screening of a new independent film ‘Addicted to Sheep’ in October. This was a licensed film and we were able to publicise and promote the screening, and charge for attendance. We decided to charge £3.00, really just to cover the costs of the film (£150). We also sold ice creams, snacks and drinks. Overall at this film, we had 60 people attending, and contributed over £100 towards our 1st year costs. Everyone who came said they had had a really good evening.

The Farndale Kids Club is also taking advantage of the equipment, and so far have shown three films – ‘Paddington’ in June; ‘Hotel Transylvania’ at a Halloween party in October, and ‘Elf’ in December. The children had a brilliant time. At these films we had overall attendance of 71. The children made themselves comfortable on rugs and cushions on the floor, and had ice creams and snacks.

So overall, we have held three films for the Kids Club, eight films for the usual members club, and held an ‘open’ screening. Overall attendance of the 12 films has been 273.

In the summer, we made another grant application to the Two Ridings Community Foundation – Grassroots Fund towards funding for some more comfortable seating, and were pleased to have the grant agreed in September. We have since purchased 30 new upholstered and padded chairs for use at the film club, and so far members have been very pleased with them. They are a big improvement on the old plastic chairs we had.

Farndale Film Club - copyright Farndale Village Hall Committee

Since we started, we have covered the overall equipment and first year’s costs of the Film Club – largely through your grant, also the income from our recycling Bags Collection, from members’ donations, and through snacks and soft drinks donations at the screenings.

All the people who have so far come to the Farndale Film Club and Kids Film Club have been very positive about having a local venue where they can see films. Comments have been made about how good it is not to have to travel miles to see films, and also how nice it is to spend time with neighbours and friends in a different arena. For some of us, it is the only time we have been to a cinema in many years! Thank you again for your generous grant, it is much appreciated by all.

Gill Aconley, Committee Member, Farndale Village Hall

James Thurtell, Chairman, Farndale Village Hall

*And talking of film, our Agri-Environment Team spent a few hours recently learning the basics of drystone walling in order to better understand this traditional craft. Here’s what happened…

Agri-Environment Team endlessly practising drystone walling at Sutton Bank - copyright NYMNPA