This gallery contains 61 photos.
Landscapes, vistas and panoramas can be impressive but sometimes it’s also worthwhile having a closer look at what’s nearby.
This gallery contains 61 photos.
Landscapes, vistas and panoramas can be impressive but sometimes it’s also worthwhile having a closer look at what’s nearby.
Sam Newton – Natural Heritage Trainee, Land of Iron
Charles Darwin was an undoubted genius, according to most people’s definition – so it should come as no surprise that he was interested in earthworms. He even wrote a book with the catchy title The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the action of worms, with observations on their habitats.
Earthworms are fundamental. They are ecosystem engineers – a term associated with important ecological outputs, which can often be stalked by controversy because of the affects caused e.g. Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber). However, everyone can get behind earthworms; they are the only species playing a significant role in pedoturbation and are a major player in pedogenesis.
What are pedoturbation and pedogenesis? Well, they’re words we should all know. They describe the process of mixing between soil horizons resulting in healthy homogenization, and the formation of soils through biogeochemical processes.
Soil is the unconsolidated material on the top level of the earth in temperate climes. In the UK most plants grow in soil. Our soils are under pressure from erosion/loss, compaction and decline in organic matter. In the 2015 bestselling book, What Nature Does for Britain by Tony Juniper, estimated the annual cost from soil degradation is between £900 million and £1.4 billion, while studies suggest soils will be too degraded for production within around 100 harvests. The need for solutions is urgent.
Soil health targets are included in the Government’s new 25 Year Environment Plan. Further national measures are planned through legislation during 2018 to manage all soils sustainably, including devising a soil health index, and updating guidance on crop establishment and optimal tillage choice.
Earthworms are crucial for tackling these problems and maintaining the health of soils. Still little is known about earthworms, despite Darwin’s efforts. We know there are 29 species in the UK, split into four groups: composters living in organic rich vegetation, epigeics living amongst leaf litter, endogeics living in the soil, and anecics living in vertical burrows. They all eat (and so recycle) decaying material, help drainage and aeration, and are food for many other species (so crucial for biodiversity). The fact that all four groups and all the species have varying ecology enhances their benefits to the reducing of erosion, compaction and the loss of organic matter, therefore benefiting the entire ecosystem – including us.
It will be very important to increase our understanding of distributions and ecology of each earthworm species, to help us to properly conserve and encourage worms to be a vital partner in such a time of soil health concern.
The Earthworm Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has information regarding the recording of earthworms, identifying different species, and further facts on their biology and ecology.
The British Society of Soil Science is supporting the advancement of soil science in the UK. The more we understand the resource the more we can do to conserve and enhance it.
Joan Childs – Head of Volunteer Service
When I returned to live in North Yorkshire recently, I unearthed some old records of the rare hoverfly Parasyrphus nigritarsis from the Farndale area, and decided to look for this species along the River Rye, Helmsley – close to where I now worked, because it looked to be a similar habitat. This section of the riverbank is designated as a Site of Importance for Nature Conservation (local designation for important wildlife sites) from Helmsley Bridge down to West Ness.
The larvae of this hoverfly feed on the eggs and larvae of Chrysomelid beetles on alder, sallows i.e. willows, and dock (Rumex spp.). Back in May, I found some of the dock beetles by the River Rye, and started to turn the dock leaves over to look for their egg clusters on the underside. While I was doing this I noticed that a hoverfly was engaged in exactly the same search pattern as me, hovering around the leaves, and disappearing underneath them, one by one! This behaviour, and the broad, dark-orange stripes on the abdomen, suggested that I had found the hoverfly in question.
Catching one of the three I saw confirmed that it was, and that it was a female. Several of the clusters of dark orange beetle eggs were overlaid by the paler yellow eggs of the hoverfly.
In June, I returned to the site and found that larvae had emerged from the P nigritarsis eggs and were feeding on the beetle eggs and larvae. Over the next few weeks the larvae were observed feeding and growing, eventually becoming harder and harder to find as they dispersed following the beetle larvae and then going into diapause (suspended development) in leaf curls and in the leaf litter, where they will spend the winter before pupating and emerging as adults. The hoverfly larvae will face a number of potential dangers over the winter, including a rise in water levels depositing mud across the lower dock leaves, and possible negative effects from agricultural land management.
Having found a technique for locating the P nigritarsis, I checked many clusters of beetle eggs on dock in a number of other sites, but did not find any further hoverflies. This suggests that this is a genuinely scarce species, not just overlooked. Other sites where the beetle occurred on dock but the hoverfly was not present, showed extensive beetle feeding damage to the leaves – which did not exist at the site by the River Rye, showing that P nigritarsis can significantly affect the beetle population.
Sam Jones – previous River Esk Project Student
I still recall the morning as, fresh-faced and hopeful, I sat in the back of a bus trundling along country roads towards the North York Moors. As we turned a corner and crested a ridge I was gifted my first view of the National Park and I could feel butterflies in my stomach, this would be my first real job in conservation. This was the start of my life serving the environment as I saw it then (and still do now I suppose). That was about four years ago, things have moved on quite a bit since then.
I worked for the National Park Authority on a year in industry placement back in my third year of University assisting with the Esk Pearl Mussel Salmon Recovery Project lead by Simon Hirst aimed at conserving the remaining Freshwater pearl mussel population in the River Esk. It was a wonderful and varied experience.
At the end of my time I spent a week wading through ocherous becks in the very upper reaches of the Murk Esk. I was rather cheekily using my last few weeks working at the National Park to collect data for my upcoming final year project. I collected samples of upland invertebrates from becks through moorland and coniferous woodland to test the effects of acidification on aquatic life, and to see how the impacts of acidic moorland and plantation woodlands compare. My project has now been published although you need journal access to see the whole thing. Simon has asked me for a basic summary of my findings and conclusions – so here goes…
I used aquatic invertebrates as indicators of environmental degradation. It’s well recognised that moorlands and uplands can have acidification issues, and the North York Moors may well be one of the most extreme areas for it in the UK with its nearby zones of industry. Acid issues have been recorded in local becks in the past, including severe fish kills. However my results were a little surprising. Originally I thought that plantation woodland, being the newer and least natural habitat (compared to moorland which is also man-made habitat), and having less ability to slow down and buffer the incoming water, would have a much more degraded community. However, my results showed significantly more acid sensitive species living in the woodlands than the moorland. This was despite the fact that previous studies had recorded lower pH values (i.e. more acidic) in plantations than in moorlands. I think that the reason for this is the woodlands provide a more diverse and richer freshwater environment for the invertebrates to live in. This is a good sign as it shows that the conifer plantation woodland, that so much of our countryside is dominated by, may not have such a bad effect on aquatic life as once assumed. The aquatic communities were also generally healthier than would have been expected given the severe acidification. I think this shows that the species of invertebrates living in the uplands of the North York Moors are well adapted for highly acid conditions and that, despite the seemingly poor chemical results, life in the upland becks is thriving.
What happened next? After I graduated from the University of York I went on to work for Natural England, the Environment Agency and now I’m part of an ecological consultancy. I’ve come full circle, and recently I was lucky enough to get accepted for a PhD up in Inverness studying Freshwater pearl mussels. Apparently they needed someone with more waders and bucket experience than lab experience, and I fitted the bill.
Scotland is one the great bastions of the Freshwater pearl mussels with populations of tens of thousands in numerous rivers and multiple populations with favourable age structures and reproductive ability (unlike in the Esk sadly). As such, my PhD is to study these populations and monitor them using traditional methods. However the focus of the investigation is to allow comparison of conventional survey methods with new eDNA techniques. Environmental DNA (eDNA) is a method of monitoring species or habitats using the DNA that is freely found in the environment. All organisms living in an environment discard DNA, whether through waste, dead cells, carcasses, etc. and this can be picked up in trace amounts in water, soil, and even air. With Freshwater pearl mussels the hope is that DNA markers and techniques can be designed to allow detection of small or isolated populations of pearl mussels in rivers simply from a scoop of river water downstream of these prospective populations. There is also potential that the techniques could be used to monitor the size, health and population structure of these populations and perhaps even help identify sub species or genetically distinct populations. Whether this is possible or not, the possibility of cheaper and easier monitoring of pearl mussels fundamentally helps with conservation efforts.
I’m hoping to be able to keep Simon and the Esk Project up to date with our findings and perhaps provide some new information and techniques that may help the Esk’s own struggling mussels over time.
Anyway, that’s my little summary of things. I hope you guys found this interesting.
Thanks for reading, and keep on supporting the National Park,
As mentioned previously, in the 1850s a seam of iron rich ironstone was discovered in Rosedale. Also known as lodestone, magnetite had long been a valued mineral because of the amount of iron ore it contains, so much so that it is often magnetic.
The discovery in Rosedale led to the rapid development and expansion of the mining and calcining industry there and in the wider area. There were great expectations …
“Professor Phillips delighted and informed the company by his description of the ‘Ironstones of Cleveland’ … The Rosedale band at its richest points, yielded 50 per cent [ore] and in many places 42 per cent. The Rosedale stone was magnetic and contained phosphorous, it was not merely magnetic, but it had an inherent magnetic polarity … There must spring up over the Cleveland district, through the working of the iron ore, great towns, with a numerous and active population; and, as a result, the moorland would be brought under cultivation and this once dismal tract of 20 square miles would rejoice in all the material means that could promote human happiness and prosperity…”
From a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Leeds, as reported in the Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, 2 October 1858.
However the actual magnetite seam was soon exhausted leaving the industry exploiting poorer ironstone and slowly declining into the 20th century. The magnetite proved to be rather a flash in the pan.
There are very few natural lakes in the North York Moors due to geology and climate, which makes Lake Gormire on the south western edge of the National Park even more remarkable. In the last Ice Age a hollow was formed by a meltwater channel between the edge of the moving Vale of York ice sheet and the edge of the North York Moors gritstone escarpment. The channel damned up and the lake left behind divided into two bodies of water – Gormire and the much smaller, Buttermere.
These are mesotrophic lakes – containing a narrow range of nutrients in medium concentrations. This type of lake chemistry is rare and becoming rarer as lakes are effected by artificially increased levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and so become eutrophic. Lake Gormire is surrounded mainly by semi natural woodland and fed by springs and so largely circumvents the risks of artificial diffuse pollution and nutrient enrichment.
Because of their chemistry Mesotrophic lakes can support higher levels of diversity of macrophytes (algae), aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish. The fen (‘mire’, ‘mere’) plants around Gormire/Buttermere reflect the acid soil, so there is Marsh cinquefoil Potentilla palustris, Common skullcap Scutellaria galericulata and Tufted loosestrife Lysimachia thyrsiflora, as well as Bog bean Menyanthes trifoliata and Water horsetail Equisetum fluviatile. Gormire is particularly popular with noisy water birds, mating toads and freshwater leeches, all exaggerating the primeval sense inside this Ice Age hollow.
Lake Gormire and the area around it is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest. The cliff slope woodland above Lake Gormire is the Garbutt Wood Nature Reserve managed by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust.
The Milky Way is a galaxy of billions of stars and planets sometimes partly visible to the naked eye as a milky looking band of light in the night sky.
We’re in the middle of the Dark Skies Festival 2017 here in the North York Moors National Park. The dark skies over National Parks make it easier to see the lights of the galaxies around us. This February is particularly good for viewing Orion and also a very bright Venus.
“February 27 1920 The mysterious stars
…Later in the evening a half-moon shone in a filmy sky across which, from S.E. to N.W., ran a Noë-ship of thin white clouds. A soft mist hung in the far valleys, but the nearer moory slopes loomed clearer. In the pastures the furze bushes were startlingly like huge black beasts grazing on the rimmed herbage. No sounds broke the utter silence of the moonlit hills; the wind had almost died away, but as I stepped over the little rill from Thunderbush Farm [Commondale], I heard its faint, musical ripple.
The ever-mysterious stars flashed through the interspaces of the filmy clouds and circled silently above the dim earth. Sirius flashed due south whilst mighty Orion hung high above the moor edge, his glory somewhat dimmed by the moon. What would life have been without the stars?”
A Man of the Moors: Extracts of the Diaries and Letter of Frank Elgee.
We use the term mini-beasts for the tiny invertebrates that go without notice until they’re looked at under the microscope and a menagerie of marvel and dread is revealed.
Identifying and counting river invertebrates is a very useful way of assessing the health of a river at a particular spot. Certain species indicate good water quality and others, poor water quality; a change in species/numbers indicate a change in water quality e.g. a pollution incident. There is a national programme of riverfly monitoring led by the Riverfly Partnership. Results are recorded centrally and indications of a potential incidents are reported to the Environment Agency. The National Park run a number of local Riverfly Monitoring Workshops for volunteers – the next one is 1 March.
MOSCHATEL Adoxa Moschatellina
Moschatel is a perennial unobtrusive plant which likes the damp, shady conditions found along woodland edges and on shaded hedge banks. It flowers between March and May, producing five lime green flowers on top of a leafless stalk, four flowers face outwards and one flower faces upwards, forming a cubic which has led to the plant’s other common name – Townhall Clock. The plant grows along the ground through rhizomes with the flower stalks growing up through its leaves to only c. 15cm tall. It is a common plant but easy to miss – look out for it in early spring before it gets hidden by taller plants.
MOTTE AND BAILEY
Historic England suggest there are over 600 motte castles or motte-and-bailey castles in England. These were early medieval fortifications built by the Normans and made up of a large mound of earth/rubble (the ‘motte’) with a defensive palisade and tower on top, and an embanked enclosure with other buildings (the ‘bailey’) adjoining.
A motte and bailey castle could act as a fort when required as well as providing the residence for the local landowner/representative of the King and a centre for feudal power. They were often built on high ground to take advantage of the extra height to dominate the landscape and overlook access routes.
Soon after the beginning of Norman rule in England came the ‘harrying of the north’ – a military campaign to overcome and overwhelm the population in the north of the country and hammer home the idea that the Normans were here to stay. The new motte and bailey castles were a highly visible tool for holding that ground and reinforcing that message.
By the 13th century castle design had moved beyond the basic motte and bailey. Although the timber structures have largely gone, the earthworks are often still traceable in the landscape, and rubble mottes and the remnants of stone towers remain. Many are scheduled. Examples in the North York Moors include Hood Hill, Easby motte, and Foss Castle.
Moths are often considered the poor cousins of butterflies in the Lepidoptera family. The most obvious difference between butterflies and moths are that the former are active during the day whereas moths are mostly (but not all) nocturnal, feeding on the nectar of night blooming/night scented plants. Another difference is that when resting, butterflies usually close their wings whereas moths leave theirs open and this makes it easier to examine their intricate patterning and refined colouring. But as with most ecological questions – what is the difference between butterflies and moths? – there is no obvious answer and always an exception. Moths can be just as colourful, just as beguiling and just as in peril, as butterflies. For more on moth conservation see here.
Shandy Hall, Coxwold has become a location for moth study and reporting over the last few years. The gardens there provide a semi-natural/cultivated habitat for many species – over 400 different species have been recorded in the gardens to date.
Simon Hirst – River Esk Project Officer
As mentioned previously, the River Esk in the North York Moors is the only river in Yorkshire with a Freshwater pearl mussel population Margaritifera margaritifera. The population is estimated to be comprised of approximately 1,000 individuals and is in drastic decline, so much so that it is on the verge of extinction. The decline is due to a number of linked causes such as water pollution, choking of the river bed by sediment build-up, deterioration in fish numbers and habitat degradation.
We’re working to improve the riparian habitat and so help secure the local population of Freshwater pearl mussel in the River Esk. We recently sent a sample of mussel shells from the Esk* over to the Swedish Natural History Museum in Stockholm, in order to determine the age of the mussels in the River Esk. The maximum age of Freshwater pearl mussels in the wild has been shown to vary considerably, from a low of 35 years in Spain (warmer, lower latitude rivers) to over 200 years in arctic areas (colder and high latitude rivers). Information from the ageing study would tell us how long we have left to save the Esk population from extinction and help identify the approximate time when the River Esk mussel population went into decline.
Dr Elena Dunca from the Swedish Natural History Museum sectioned (cut though) the shells supplied and then counted the growth lines on the mussel shell using a high powered microscope.
Growth lines visible on the freshwater pearl mussel shell.
This age/length graph will allow us to age fairly accurately any mussels we find in the wild in the future just by measuring them.
A total of 10 shells were aged by Dr Dunca, and the graph below shows that the mussels sent to Sweden ranged in age from 45 to 88 years of age. The mussels in the River Esk also showed normal growth rates.
Length frequency graph of mussels in the River Esk
The smallest live mussel we have found in the Esk up to now was 75mm (approximately 28 years of age). This means the last time the Esk mussels reproduced successfully in the wild was in the late 1980s. The largest mussel we have found in the Esk was 156mm (approximately 100 years of age), which means it was born around the time of the First World War. The vast majority of the mussels are around the 130mm-140mm size range (approximately 80 years of age). We now know for scientific certainty that the Esk has an ageing population in need of help!
The best hope for our mussels is for them to start to successfully reproduce again. We’re working with the Freshwater Biological Association (FBA) who are carrying out captive breeding work in the Lake District. We hope to re-introduce the captive bred young Esk mussels from the FBA Facility back into the Esk once the riparian habitat is restored enough to sustain them, and so ultimately stop this species from becoming extinct in the wild (of Yorkshire).
* Please note – No mussels were harmed in the making of this study! We used empty shells that were found on the banks of the Esk.
Thanks to our funders at Biffa Award, for their support to carry out this vital research work.
Biffa Award is a multi-million pound fund that helps to build communities and transform lives through awarding grants to community and environmental projects across the UK, as part of the Landfill Communities Fund.
Roy McGhie – Conservation Project Assistant
Recently my colleague Ami and I went on an organised farm walk near Menethorpe to the south of the North York Moors. The event was led by the Campaign for the Farmed Environment and the theme was habitat management for pollinators. The walk was well attended by local land managers who wanted to know a bit more about the benefits that pollinators provide, and how they might most easily encourage them, in particular on otherwise unproductive areas of their land.
The main focus of our discussion was inevitably bees – our most efficacious pollinators. We were given copies of an excellent booklet from the Centre of Ecology and Hydrology called ‘Habitat Creation and Management for Pollinators’.
We’ve mentioned bees a number of times before in this blog, but felt it was about time they had their own post because they are so important.
In the UK whilst there is only one species of honey bee Apis mellifera (both wild and semi-domesticated), there are about half a dozen common bumble bees and over twenty common species of solitary bees like mining bees, mason bees and leaf cutter bees.
The bee flying season can begin as early as March and extend right the way into October, as long as there is food i.e. nectar and pollen available. Most species of bees can survive over winter if there is somewhere for them to hole up.
The anatomy of different bee species varies greatly, and so to assist most species it’s best to have a wide range of flower species from which they can feed. As some of the mining bees have short tongues of only 4-5mm, they need open flowers such as cow parsley and daisies. The garden bumblebee Bombus hortorum on the other hand has a tongue that can extend to around 12mm, so it can feed from flowers with a long corolla (i.e. petals) like foxgloves and honeysuckle.
As well as fragrance, one of the other things that attracts bees to flowers is colour. So its worth considering maintaining colours throughout the season. For example, coltsfoot and hawk’s beard provide yellow colour from about February to June, and then cat’s ear and bristly oxtongue do the same from June to October. Similarly, a successional combination of white deadnettle, oxeye daisy and yarrow can ensure there are plenty of white flowers throughout the year. Interestingly, it is thought that bees can see in ultraviolet, which means how they perceive flowers will be very different from how we do.
Establishing and managing a wildflower meadow is one of the most effective ways of ensuring bees have a suitable habitat. In addition it is thought that on arable farms having a flower-rich margin on at least 1% of the land will provide significant benefit to pollinators, which in turn will improve crop production and quality. Hedgerows can be another useful way to help bees – cutting hedges on a two or even three year cycle will encourage more hawthorn and blackthorn flowers. When new hedges are planted, a greater species diversity (using hazel, field maple, crab apple, holly and willow where appropriate) will also mean that there is more food and nectar available for a longer period throughout the year.
Bees are fantastic creatures in their own right. They also provide a number of hugely important direct benefits for our countryside and environment. There are things we can do to encourage bee survival such as sowing appropriate wildflowers and creating habitat stepping stones, allowing what we might think of as typically weeds to flourish (in the right place), creating patches of bare ground in sunny dry spots which will allow solitary mining bees to nest, and leaving tall grass over winter which can provide places for bumblebees to hibernate and nest.
Bees are often in the news these days, mostly because they are in decline – they even need their own national strategy. If we can do our best to make the landscape more friendly, we can help give bees a better chance, and ensure they can continue to play a key role in pollinating our flowers, trees and crops.
For a local initiative – see B-Lines Ryedale
Due to the sustained period of dry and hot weather recently an emergency rescue was required last week. We’ve blogged about similar operations in the previous two years, where the River Rye in Duncombe Park, Helmsley tends to dry up during summer months because of numerous natural sink holes. This leaves large numbers of fish and other water-dependent creatures stranded in shrinking pools. This year the crisis was particularly acute with no effective quantities of rain in the short term weather forecast.
The River Rye is one of only a few rivers in the North East of England which supports a population of White-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). The species are “Globally Threatened” according to the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. They are the only native crayfish in the UK, and the majority of populations here are declining due to competition from introduced crayfish species, crayfish plague and water pollution.
So last week, alerted by the local fishing club, staff and apprentices turned up in force under the supervision of Simon our River Esk Officer (because he has a licence to handle the protected crayfish). Using gloves and buckets everyone scooped up what creatures they could and then relayed the buckets upstream to where the collected creatures were released back into the River Rye, safely above the sink holes. Over 500 White-clawed crayfish were rescued along with a variety of fish species – Bullhead (250+), Brown Trout (20+), Stone Loach (20+) and Brook Lamprey (50+).
The translocated fish and White-clawed crayfish will inevitably recolonise the dried up section once the flows return to normal. The habitat here is ordinarily really good, the only down side being the disastrous disappearing water phenomenon during the summer.
The future for local White-clawed crayfish is somewhat uncertain. Further survey work is needed to establish the location of populations in the Rye, in order to help direct and prioritise effective measures to bolster the populations and make them more resilient to climate change risks like flash flooding and drought crisis. Rescue events may need to become a regularised occurrence.
We have no current evidence that the introduced Signal crayfish, which are such a threat to the White-clawed crayfish, have made it into the River Rye yet. Elsewhere in the country ark sites have been established, away from river networks, where populations of White-clawed crayfish can be introduced and kept in blissful isolation. If feasible here this could be a useful additional safety measure, but the first priority is keeping the Rye White-clawed crayfish populations in the river for as long as possible and conserving this particular element of our local natural heritage.
Rosie Nelson – Masters Student
I’m Rosie and I’m two months in to my research masters at Durham University, kindly sponsored through the North York Moors National Park Authority with funding from Biffa Award. Since my second year of university, I’ve known I wanted to work with (or in) rivers, and this masters should help me get one step closer to achieving that.
I’m investigating the water quality of three hotspot tributaries of the Esk: Danby Beck, Toad Beck and Great Fryup Beck, in the hope to identify point source pollution and its cause/s. Ensuring good water quality is crucial for the health of the river and paramount for the Freshwater pearl mussels that live there. The key contaminants I will be looking at are Phosphate, Nitrogen and Ammonium. The Esk currently exceeds the thresholds for these three elements/compounds which pollute the river environment and damage freshwater systems. I hope that through my data collection and analysis I can identify point source pollution issues and help reduce the contaminants entering the Esk. Hopefully making the Freshwater pearl mussels a little bit happier!
Being based in the Authority’s Conservation Department for at least one day a week is proving to be very helpful. Not only am I extremely productive, but I’m also learning what it’s like to work in a conservation environment – something I definitely hope to be doing in the future.
At the start of May, I got to join in with the Salmon in the Classroom project alongside Simon the River Esk Project Officer and Alex the Catchment Partnership Officer. Simon taught me how to kick sample, something I really wish I’d known how to do before. You get into a safe watercourse with a fishing net, place the net downstream of you and kick the river bed. After several kicks, you empty the net into a bucket of water and hope you’ve found things, like invertebrates and potentially even fish! After several kick samples, we had collected enough living invertebrates for the children and me to identify.
Last week I went out with Alex in Glaisdale in the Esk Catchment, and aside from us both getting stuck in the mud I had a great day (luckily I was holding a spade and could dig us out!). In the morning we visited a farm which is perfect for bank stabilisation work to lessen the amount of sedimentation. In the afternoon at a different site in the dale we planted trees and sowed grass seed to re-vegetate where a new drinking bay had been installed (to provide water for stock which are now fenced off from the river).
Well that’s just a snippet of the things I’ve been getting up to in the past couple of months, not forgetting reading as much as physically possible about anything and everything river related!