A New Kiln for Rosedale: a poetic perspective from 1865 – Part 1

David Mennear – Land of Iron Administration Assistant

A Brief Historical Note

The ironstone industrial sites of the North York Moors and the Cleveland Hills were of great national economic importance in their time (Historic England Listing – Rosedale East Mines calcining kilns and iron mines) and utilised a considerable workforce for this most gruelling of industries in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The massive structures, the sense of progress, the nobility of endeavour, inspired emotional and artistic responses.

Stone Kilns from Nab Scar - copyright Paddy Chambers

A unique contemporary insight into the industrial expansion in Rosedale comes from this wonderfully evocative anonymously-written narrative poem about the New Kiln’s design trialled here – as transcribed by the noted local historian Malcolm Bisby.

The kiln, built as an experiment in 1865 alongside the more traditional designs of the age, provided work for skilled individuals from across the region. Rosedale was productive in both mining quality ironstone and being able to calcine (or roast) it on site, before it was carried away by locomotives along the specially-constructed railways, which extended into the Durham and Tees areas from the heart of the North York Moors. As the poet recalls, the kilns roasted ‘by day as well as night’, a glow which lit the landscape in a way we can only imagine today in the peaceful and tranquil setting of Rosedale . . .

 ‘Discussion between two friends on the New Kiln while building, noting a few of its’ misfortunes, 1865’

 Transcribed by Malcolm Bisby

1. I long have looked for you,
‘Midst all I’ve had to do,
And many changes there has been
Since last I talked with you.

2. I’m glad once more your face to see –
Don’t think that I am joking,
While some say I am far too fast
My lines are provoking.

3. You long have wish’d to know
Our doings in this place,
And I am going to tell you
Although ‘tis a sad disgrace.

4. ‘Tis two full years at least
Since first I came this way,
Come listen and you soon will hear
What I have got to say.

5. At first I shall remind you
When here we sat alone,
And watch’d the men lay down
The first foundation stone.

6. We wondered what all this could mean
Until we saw that man
He said “They’re going to build a kiln
But ten to one she’ll stand.”

7. We did not take much notice then
To see them first begin,
But before they reach’d half the top,
Our fears they did begin,

8. Then people soon began to talk
As shortly you shall hear
Some of them spied a crack or two
And they began to fear.

9. The news soon spread from place to place
In country and in town,
And those who live to see the day
She’ll surely tumble down.

10. The mason work look’d strong and good
For which I shall allow
The master of them all you know
He came from Lastingham town.

11. The fitter came with screws and bolts
To finish and adorn,
It would be better perhaps for me.
To let these men alone.

12. Their work I’m sure it was admired
By all that came this way,
But sad to think as well as say
It shortly all gave way.

13. Then all the skill of man was tried
The kiln for to keep up
But they like all the rest you see
Had nothing but bad luck.

14. Up spoke a workman of this place –
A wild and wicked wretch
“This kiln will fall and that you’ll see,
And kill poor old Frank Petch.”

15. Up spoke another and he said
“Thou wants this kiln to fall,
But if she does thou may depend
It’s a bad job for us all.”

16. “Thou need not start to grunt and growl
About t’bad job, thou’ll see.
There’ll always be plenty of work
For either thee or me.”

17. “Thou doesn’t care for t’masters
When thou thy wage has got,
If’t kiln do fall in spite of us
And beggar all t’job lot.

18. “I don’t think it would beggar them
If she was down today,
Our gentlemen are very rich
As I’ve heard people say.”

19. “They’re very rich I must agree
But they’ve had heavy losses,
She has so many times given way
It’s sure to tax their purses.”

20. Some hundreds of pounds was paid –
Nay, thousand I may say,
But in spite of all that they could do
Part of this kiln gave way.

21. The workmen for awhile stood still
And looked sore amaz’d
And if we’d had the masters here
They might have gone quite craz’d..

Rosedale Kiln and rail wagons - Rosedale History Society Archive

22. It was a pity for to see
This noble kiln diminish’d
And worst of all she fell you know
Before she was quite finished.

23. The bricklayers too I’ve got to mention
Likewise their noble work,
I could not learn what were their names
They said they came from York.

24. And those were men of noble skill
They show’d their work was good
But it would have looked better
If only it had stood.

25. I wish you had been there to hear
The rumours on that day
Go where you will, you hear the cry
The kiln is giving way.

26. You that this kiln have never seen
You may believe my words
She was tied back you soon shall hear
With some large iron rods.

27. The rods began to crack and break
The workmen cried “Begum –
To the Blacksmith’s shop you must away
Tell Carter he’s to come.

28. “And while you thus to Carter go,
The Blacksmith for to tell,
Somebody else must run away,
And fetch Mr. Fell.”

29. And something else I now shall state
As clear as ever I can
And when you hear my story out
I think you’ll know the man.

30. It is not very long ago
They played the man a trick
I shall not state what is his name,
I’ll only say “Old Mick”.

31. This man was tired – There is no doubt
And he’d gone home to bed,
No doubt but this noble kiln
Was running in his head

32. But some one to his door came,
And in a haste did say,
“You must arise, a bad job’s up
The kiln is giving way.”

33. “And will she fall?” the inmate cried
“Yes that she will and soon,
You must be quick and come away
Or before you’re there she’s down”.

34. So without any more enquiring
This man did go to see
And the kiln was standing then alright,
How simple man must be!

35. But tricks like these are far too bad,
To either friend or foe
But what can you expect from those
Which do not better know?

36. I would have them for the future try
To do the best they can
And in their minds to always bear
That manners take the man,

37. But on this point I must not dwell
For they are leading the kiln away
And with the stones they’re mending t’road
I saw the other day.

38. And every body came to see
This kiln when she fell down
T’was such a crash! The news soon spread
In country and in town.

39. T’will be remembered there’s no doubt
As long as we’re alive,
And we’ll tell what passed in Rosedale
In eighteen sixty five.

40. And generations yet to come,
Will remember what I’ve said,
When the noble workmen of this kiln
Lie numbered with the dead

41. But a different plan they’ve tried at last,
And not a better one can be.
Instead of having her all in one,
They’ve made her into three

42. It’s thought she’ll stand and not disgrace
The last inventor’s plan,
But stone to calcine she will burn
Three times the age of man . . .

A view of the Rosedale East new mines as they were best known - Rosedale History Society Archive

We’re only half way through – the finale of this fascinating poem will follow shortly, with a unique commentary by Malcolm Bisby.

Land of Iron logos

What happened next?

Before Love in the Countryside, there was Sunley’s Daughter.

British Film Institute - Sunley's Daughter

Back in the 1970s, Barry Cockcroft made a series of documentary programmes for Yorkshire Television portraying engaging characters living a rural life in the north of the county – the most famous of which was Too Long a Winter which starred Hannah Hauxwell farming in Baldersdale in the North Pennines.

There were also a couple of programmes set in the Cleveland Hills/Esk Dale in the north of the North York Moors. One – The Children of Eskdale – has already featured on this Blog. The other is Sunley’s Daughter, filmed in 1974. Like the other episodes the idea was to document real people’s lives in such a way as to construct a ‘drama’, a human interest story.

The Sunley family live on a tenanted farm near Gerrick – Joe Sunley, the patriarch figure, Connie Sunley, his wife, and one remaining child, Mary whose four siblings have all moved away. In this north west corner of the North York Moors it isn’t the climate that is harsh enough to make a story, instead it is the atypical life of 25 year old Mary. Mary works on the dairy farm – hard physical labour – seven days a week. She has done so for years, and will do so for years to come as long as her parents are alive and keep the tenancy of the farm. The farm can’t be passed down, it belongs to the local estate – Ringrose Wharton (now Skelton & Gilling). A farm under tenancy means there is not the incentive to invest in the farm and its machinery, even if Joe Sunley wanted to, which he doesn’t. He wants to live by the tenets of the Bible – a hard life makes that easier to do. He chooses not to have electricity, as he chooses not to celebrate birthdays or Christmas – and so neither do his family, the interviewer gets his wife to admit she misses the electricity. Joe perseveres (a biblical maxim); as Connie says ‘he’ll never give in’. Interestingly Joe doesn’t come from the expected cliché of generations of local farming stock – his father was an ironstone miner and he himself was a fitter until the Great Depression. He worked his way up using allotments for growing vegetables, rearing chickens, making ice cream in Guisborough, before finally getting himself a farming tenancy. Connie worked alongside him all the way.

What Joe, along with a number of other working farmers in the East Cleveland Hills, takes particular satisfaction in is the breeding of Cleveland Bay horses – a local native breed, highly valued today. You see Joe riding a horse, he used to plough with them; the Cleveland Bay is known as a working horse despite looking like a million dollars. The breed declined in the 20th century and during that time it was Joe Sunley and his neighbours that kept it alive. Joe Sunley is and was a renowned breeder, he sold horses to the Queen of England and the Emperor of Japan, but he’s definitely not going to let that make him a fortune. The programme doesn’t explain why he does it, maybe it’s another thing to strive at, to give him a sense of achievement. His horses in particular seem extremely spirited.

According to the programme for Mary every day is the same … until she meets Jim Smith, a farm labourer on the next door farm. He asks her out, and after a year they are engaged. That’s Part One of the programme. Part Two appears to be working up to a marriage and to establishing a new future for Mary. I don’t mean to spoil the programme’s ending for you – but this doesn’t happen. Mary is a thoughtful woman, she has made sense of her life. Like her mother, she’s more passive than proactive, she wants to ‘wait and see’ and expect there will be ‘more chances’ to come for her and Jim. She’s not ready to go at that time.

One of the main themes presented is the unchanging nature of the Sunley’s lives, but this is exaggerated because around them times are changing as they inevitably do. The farm next door has a milking machine, and productive Friesian dairy cows. The Estate Manager at Skelton Castle talks about the expected ingress of Teesside and expanding urbanisation impacting on the Cleveland Hills. He recognises that small farms will become unviable and suggests Jim will need 400 to 500 acres of farmland (150 to 200 hectares) to support a family. For Jim as a farm labourer buying a farm is impossible, and estate farms to rent are few and far between – they’re trapped between lack of income and tradition. There is an opportunity for Jim to work on a ‘modern’ farm at Dunsley, near Whitby, for an 11 hour day at £31 a week (c. £225 today) but with the advantage of having a tied house for him and Mary to live in, as long as they’re married.

But it’s not all Cold Comfort Farm. Mary has been ‘outside’, to Leeds, to Middlesbrough, to Scotland; that may not seem very exotic but it’s not unusual for the 1970s. Mary is allowed to go out with Jim and to get engaged – she’s not forbidden by her father. She curls her hair and goes to the dance at the local Village Hall. The clothes and hair of the people at the dance, mainly women and girls, are very much of the 1970s even if the music is not. Mary’s father acknowledges her value, her mother says she would miss her.

It’s difficult to imagine how the programme got made. Barry Cockcroft must have been good at getting circumspect people to trust him enough to allow him to film them and to tell stories about their lives. The dialogue is encouraged, not coached – the men are much keener on speaking their minds than the women. The programme may over emphasise the romantic music, maybe it’s a bit patronising, maybe it pushes Mary a bit too much to try and get her to react. But it’s interesting for a number of reasons –  reflecting farming in the 1970s, capturing real people only a couple of generations ago even if it is in a directed documentary, or maybe it’s just because of the human interest in the realistic rather than fairy tale ending. I wonder what happened to Mary and Jim – but that’s their business, not mine.

Property prices

Twenty years after the Battle of Hastings and the Norman take-over of England, William I (the Conqueror) commissioned an extensive survey of his new asset. As well as establishing the financial value of his land and therefore what levels of tax could be expected, it also records who owns what which was particularly useful for a King who needed to control the wealth and therefore the power of his closest nobles and their factions. Before he got himself a kingdom, William was a nobleman himself, so he well understood the machinations of influence and hierarchy.

Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry showing the Battle of Hastings - GettyImages-79521159-H

This survey has come to be known as the Domesday Book, because the survey results and the Final Judgement (due on Doomsday) shared a similar concept of an ultimate evaluation with no appeal.

The survey was undertaken over 1086 and 1087. For Yorkshire the main elements recorded for each Vill or linked Vills*, were the number of carucates (a measurement of land based on what could be ploughed in a season), the number of plough lands (arable land i.e. the most valuable land), the number of plough teams (necessary to exploit the plough lands) and population, along with assigned values and sometimes measurements (based on lengths and breadth). *A Vill was not just a village, but an administrative unit smaller to the later Parish unit.

Inevitably the Domesday Book has lots of supposed inaccuracies, missing information, various approximations, and apparent misunderstandings and mistakes. To add to the confusion Anglo-Saxon codification was still being used alongside new Norman nomenclature as administrative terms. Nevertheless the Book provides a window in time from nearly 1000 years ago, however inaccurate some of the details.

Extract from The Domesday Book - https://archive.org/details/DomesdayBookYorkshire

The comparison of Vill information provides an estimate of relative wealth. In the North York Moors area the obvious conclusion is that because of the large extent of ‘waste’ land and the very small populations recorded the area was relatively poor. There are large areas of the central moorland with no Vills and therefore information, because there was no habitation. This was inevitable because the moorland area could not be put to the plough and so was classed as ‘waste’ i.e. not used. There is also a paucity of information in many North York Moors entries e.g. few mills, scarce references to stock animals – this also suggests a lack of resources worth taxing compared with other areas of England.

There are a number of Vills around the edges of the moorland, including along the coast, where there was either only ‘waste’ or partial ‘waste’ according to the Domesday survey. Shortly after William I became King of England the Normans carried out a military campaign in the north of England in the winter of 1069/70 to ensure all William’s new subjects definitely knew they had been subjugated – this is sometimes called the ‘Harrying of the North’. As well as the direct devastation of people and settlements, by destroying supplies, livestock, and cultivated land the indirect effects on the population from starvation were long lasting. In some Domesday Book entries the value of northern Vills is given as of c. 1066 as well as of 1086, and the decline in value (and population) is considerable.

The land of the Count of Mortain (half-brother of William the Conqueror)

In Lid (Lythe) 2 carucates to the geld (measure of tax), and 1 plough could plough them. Swein had 1 manor there (pre Conquest). Now the Count of Mortain has it, and Nigel of him (sub-tenant with a Norman name). There are 6 villans with 1 plough, and 6 acres of meadow, woodland pasture 1 league long and 2 furlongs broad. The whole manor 11/2 leagues long and half a league broad. TRE (in the time of King Edward the Confessor as king, i.e. pre Conquest) worth 20s (shillings); now 5s6d (shillings and pence, note how much the value has gone down).

In Golborg or Goldeburg (Goldsborough) 2 carucates to the geld, and there could be 2 ploughs. Swein had 1 manor there. Now Nigel (again) has it of the count. There are 16 acres of meadow (that’s a lot of potentially valuable land, as long as there are people to farm it). The whole manor 1 league long and a half broad. TRE it was worth 10s, now it is waste (If you’re going to lay waste its more effective to focus on settlements with a value, than on places that are already valueless).
Extracts from the Domesday Book

However it is worth noting that this ‘laying waste’ was not a new thing for the north of England, it had been going on intermittently for years, most recently at the hands of Scots and Vikings. It has also been suggested that the changes to the extent of waste around the North York Moors could be partly due to new landowners consolidating their wealth by re-distributing their working peasants in the 1070s and 1080s to make more of their best land, moving populations from the uplands to the lowlands. This could help explain why there is more plough land than plough teams in a number of locations. The Survey was only carried out as far north as the River Tees, which meant Yorkshire was the most northern county in the east and the North York Moors were right on the edge. Land further north was borderland subject to lawlessness and territorial conflict which often spilled out.

The Domesday Book is divided up between shires (counties) and and beneath that the major (new) landowners, starting with the king at the top and then his barons and bishops below who had received gifts of land, the spoils of war, from the king as reward for their service and loyalty. It was very much all change at the top in the twenty years since the conquest, and this is obvious in the proliferation of the Norman sounding names of major landowners. Below the barons and bishops were local under-tenants. Very occasionally there is a local under-tenant still with Anglo-Saxon or Viking sounding name in the North York Moors.

The land of the King’s Thegns (Lower level of aristocracy, beneath Barons/Bishops)

In Childale (Kildale), Ligulf had (pre Conquest) 6 carucates of land to the geld, land for 3 ploughs. Orm (this is a Viking name) has 1 plough there, and 8 bordars with 2 ploughs. There is a priest and a church. 2 leagues long and 1 broad. TRE worth 16s; now 20s. (Note that the value of the Kildale Vill has actually increased since 1066 which suggests it had avoided being attacked).
Extract from the Domesday Book

As well as plough land, there was also value assigned to woodland which in the North York Moors was mostly silva pastilis i.e. wood pasture. It’s worth noting that the Domesday Book doesn’t provide the area of woodland in England, it’s only interested in managed woodland. However it’s interesting now to see where there was woodland – for instance the record for the Vill of Crunkly in the Esk Valley (now Crunkly Gill) contains considerable woodland, alongside a small population and plough lands – Crunkly Gill is now renowned for its Ancient Woodland. There was some ‘meadow’ around the North York Moors, particularly along the edges, valuable for hay and for grazing. There is also reference to scrubland which at least provided some resource compared to waste.

The Land of the Count of Mortain

 In Elmeslac or Almeslai (Helmsley). Uhtraed had 1 manor of 8 carucates to the geld, and there could be 4 ploughs. Now the count has there 6 villans with 2 ploughs. There is a priest and a church, woodland pasture and arable field 6 leagues long and 11/2 leagues broad. TRE worth 32s; now 10s (the value has declined considerably but it’s still relatively valuable and the presence of the arable field and people/ploughs will potentially bring the value back up soon enough).
Extract from the Domesday Book

Population numbers, including plough team numbers, were very important from a point of view of property and wealth. Working people (villans, bordars who all owed labour to their overlord) were vital for turning land into yield. There are also sokeman and soke land, a sokeman was a kind of freeman, more prevalent in previously Viking controlled areas like the north of England, but they still owed labour to their overlord. The Domesday Book looks to the future as well as noting past ownership, in an area like the North York Moors which was currently low value it often refers to the numbers of ploughs there could be. The Normans were here for the long term.

The land of Robert Malet (given land by the King in Yorkshire, Norfolk, Lincolnshire, Essex, Nottinghamshire, Rutland, and Surrey)

In Begeland (Old Byland). Eskil had 6 carucates of land to the geld, where there could be 3 ploughs. Now Robert has 1 plough there; and 7 villans with 2 ploughs. There is a priest and a wooden church. TRE it was worth 20s; now 16s.
Extract from the Domesday Book

A number of ‘newer’ villages/vills in the North York Moors don’t feature in the Domesday Book, including Rievaulx, Broxa, Silpho, Goathland, and Westerdale, which all have later mediaeval origins. There are also a number of Vills whose population and importance subsequently shrunk, disappeared or was subsumed, such as Ardene (Arden), Rauenstorp (Ravensthorpe), Morton (Murton), and Griff. However a lot of the Vills can still be recognised in parish and village names today – even if the spelling looks different, try saying the Domesday name out loud.

The land of Earl Hugh (Hugh d’Avranches, the Norman Earl of Chester)

In Witebi (Whitby) and Sneton or Snetune (Sneaton), a Berewick (an outlying holding considered part of the Manor), are 15 carucates to the geld, and there could be 15 ploughs. Earl Siward (Viking Earl of Northumberland) held this as 1 manor. Now Earl Hugh has it, and William de Percy of him (de Percy’s feudal overlord was d’Avranches, but a few generations later it would be the de Percy family who will be given the very important Earldom of Northumberland). In demesne (land directly part of the manor) 2 ploughs; and 10 villans and 3 bordars having 1 plough. Woodland pasture 7 leagues long and 3 leagues broad. The whole of the open land 3 leagues long and 2 broad. TRE worth £112 (a large amount of money); now 60s. To this manor belongs the sokeland (wider land holdings): Figclinge or Figelinge or Figlinge (Fyling), 1 carucate; Nortfigelinge (Fylingthorpe), 5 carucates; Ghinipe (Gnipe Howe), 3 carucates; Presibi (part of Whitby), 2 carucates; Ugleberdesbi (Ugglebarnby), 3 carucates; Sourebi (part of Whitby), 4 carucates; Brecca (part of Whitby), 1 carucate; Bauldbyes (part of Whitby), 1 carucate; Flore or Florum (Flowergate – part of Whitby), 2 carucates; Staxebi (High Stakesby), 2 carucates and 6 bovates (a bovate is one eighth of a carucate); Neuhuse (Newsholm), 4 carucates. In all 28 carucates and 6 bovates to the geld, and there could be 24 ploughs. Earl Hugh has this, and William of him. Nearly all waste. Only in Prestebi and Sourebi which the Abbot of York has of William, are there 2 ploughs in demesne, and 8 sokemen with 1 plough, and 30 villans with 3 ploughs, and 1 mill 10s (probably a corn mill), and 26 acres of meadow, in places.
Extract from the Domesday Book

There are various ways to access the content and information contained in the Domesday Book – try Open Domesday

Starting out in the past

Anna Chapman – Student Placement, Land of Iron Landscape Partnership Scheme

I am a first-year undergraduate studying at Exeter University reading History. Public History is one of my core modules; it focuses on the presentation of historical knowledge into the public sphere and maintaining the efficient and ethical management of heritage. For this module I have to undertake a work place to learn the day to day business of managing a heritage site. The North York Moors National Park with heritage sites across the Park area seemed a natural fit for my placement and the Land of Iron team were kind enough to take me on. With my placement being only a short 40 hours, the team arranged a well packed and varied set of tasks around their National Lottery funded Landscape Partnership Scheme.

Anna sorting finds by material type. Copyright NYMNPA.

The first day here I worked alongside Kim Devereux-West (Land of Iron Cultural Heritage Assistant) at the National Park Authority’s Castleton Depot. We were sorting artefacts from the community archaeology excavations carried out in 2016 and 2017, by material type. I came across a lot of interesting pieces, but if I had to choose one in particular I would have to mention the poison bottles, usually in good condition, but what struck me was how common they seemed to be.

Some of the few none poison bottle finds. Copyright NYMNPA.

Later that day once the fog and rain had cleared we ventured up to visit the Rosedale East ironstone kilns and mines, and associated railway line. Having never been here before it was great to see such a unique and grand piece of heritage not only in its natural state, but also to see the work being done through Land of Iron to maintain the safety of the deteriorating site for the public. The remainder of the kiln structures still held a remarkable presence in the beautiful landscape of the dale, I couldn’t help thinking what a wonderful juxtaposition the views from the top of the pastoral moors must have been against the fully functioning industrial sites in their time.

On the opposite side of the dale we visited the Bank Top calcining kilns. New interpretation boards in development will help provide a fresh and modern learning experience for the public, by telling the Land of Iron stories. As there is little historical record for the miners, kiln workers, railway men and their families, it’s important to convey the site’s known history and what happened there, to ensure these incredible heritage sites are recognised and appreciated.

Industrial heritage sites, Rosedale. Copyright NYMNPA.Having had the luxury of visiting sites along the moors, I also had the opportunity to help out in the Helmsley Headquarters. It was great to learn about the hugely varying roles in the Land of Iron team all working together to progress their Scheme. Having only ever been on the other side of National Park events and projects as a member of the public, it was extremely useful to gain an insight into the work behind the scenes.

I got involved with another aspect of the National Park and heritage, I got to help set up and help manage an event for the public. Malcolm Bisby, a local historian and power bank of knowledge on the Rosedale ironstone industry, is holding a series of talks – ‘Tales over Tea: the story of the Rosedale ironstone industry told over a four-part series‘. Part two of four took place at Danby Village Hall. The venue had had to be changed because his first talk at The Moors National Park Centre was so popular the rest have had to be moved to a larger venue. The previous event space held up to sixty and we were aiming to set up for around eighty. Despite this last-minute change of location and a lot of reliance on word of mouth, the turn out did not disappoint as the Village Hall filled up.  Malcolm gave a knowledgeable and engaging illustrated talk to the eager audience, who were also keen to get to speak to speak to him afterwards, showing how admired he is in the community. It was very useful for me to be able to see how much work it takes in setting up these kind of events and to meet so many enthusiastic people showing how worthwhile all the work is for community heritage.

On my final and very sunny day in Helmsley, I was working again at the Headquarter this time in the IT department with Sandra Kennish. I spent the day scanning published paperwork and entering the information into a database. It is really important to record and organise as much available data and sources as possible, and make this accessible in the future.

On Wednesday 18 April, ICOMOS celebrated the International Day for Monuments and Sites, whose establishment was approved by the 22nd UNESCO General Conference in 1983. The theme for this year was ‘Heritage for Generations’ and the events taking place were led by a group of chosen youth leadership who are emerging professionals in each of their countries. The events that took place were led by these groups using social media, and promoting the protection of cultural heritage with the hashtag #heritage4generations. If you use this hashtag when visiting a monument or event you can share why it may be important to you individually, as each human experience with heritage is different and unique. However, when each individual shares the story behind their monument or heritage, together with the global ICOMOS community, what starts as an individual experience of heritage becomes global, portraying the amazing variety of heritage and the effect it has collectively on culture across the globe. This social media movement is vastly important in encouraging the communication between generations and continuing conversations about heritage, so the cultural changes are documented from one generation to another creating an overall narrative for cultural heritage.

I’d like to thank all the staff at Helmsley for firstly fitting me into their busy schedules and looking after me so well, and secondly for teaching me so much about heritage that is right on my doorstep which before this placement I knew little about. I hope this isn’t my last time being involved in the heritage sector and look forward to visiting the National Park again in the future.

 

 

A to Z: a rabble of Rs

R

RABBITS

Hares are native to Britain, but rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are not considered to be native at least not since the last Ice Age. Rabbits, also known as coneys, were introduced first by the Romans and then imported by the Normans in the early medieval period. Rabbits were valued for their meat, fur and skin. On southern facing slopes of the North York Moors, rabbits were farmed from the medieval period through to the 20th century using warrening structures. Warrens were artificially constructed with embankments, ditches and ‘pillow’ mounds. Particularly common were ‘Rabbit-types’ where rabbits were caught through trap doors which released into pits.  These artificial warrens allowed the rabbits to be managed (farmed) efficiently on a large scale.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries felt from rabbit skins and fur was an important money making product for the south east corner of the North York Moors. Felt was in demand for hats and rabbit was an alternative to beaver. The industry slowly declined with the last warrener working up until the 1920s.  Many warrening sites have been lost as land has been re-used, but some large scale warrening complexes can still be traced in the Forestry Commission owned forests such as Dalby and Wykeham.

Rabbit, Westerdale. Copyright Ami Hudson, NYMNPA.

Wild/feral rabbits are now a particularly successful non-native invasive species, despite there being a number of native predator species.

Ranunculus sp.

As winter is losing its grip, hopefully the photo below will help brighten your day.

Grassland with buttercups. Copyright NYMNPA.

Ranunculus is the plant genus which includes our buttercup species and provides our countryside with vivid displays of yellow during the summer months.  There are lots of different species, and here are but a few found across Britain including the North York Moors, all with sunny yellow flowers.

Meadow buttercup R.acris: Look at a hay meadow in the summer and the chances are that it is this species that is predominant. It is an indicator of moist unimproved grassland, and although it grows in a wide range of soil types it is not tolerant of high nutrient levels. As it can survive cutting and is not palatable to grazing stock, old meadows and pastures are where it thrives best.

Creeping buttercup R.repens: This buttercup can, from a distance, give the impression that you are looking at a species rich hay meadow. The reality can be very different though as this plant is very tolerant of high nutrient levels and disturbed ground and is sometimes considered a problem weed. It is often found around field gateways where poaching and tramping make it difficult for other plants to survive, and in overgrazed fields where it remains untouched by stock and readily out competes less tolerant plants. One of the key differences between this species and meadow buttercup is the presence of rooting runners which allow this plant to spread very effectively and quickly cover bare ground. The species’ method of reproduction (cloning) meant it was used a few years ago for an interesting study into aging meadows. https://www.aber.ac.uk/en/news/archive/2009/june/title-77794-en.html

Bulbous buttercup R. bulbosus: This species prefers much drier conditions and, like meadow buttercup, is an indicator of unimproved grassland with a low tolerance to fertilisers. It is common on well drained neutral or calcareous soils and can be identified by its downturned sepals (when flowering) and a swollen stem base which can be identified by carefully scratching a small amount of soil away from the base of the plant.

But it’s not just buttercups. Also in the same Ranunculus genus, and providing a splash Lesser spearwort. Copyright NYMNPA.of colour in the early days of spring before the other Ranunculs is Lesser Celandine (R.ficaria). This is easily identified by its narrow, glossy yellow petals, low-growing form and heart-shaped mottled leaves. It’s usually noticeable as it is in abundance when other plants are still tentatively emerging from their overwintering.

Finally, brightening up bogs in the summer is Lesser spearwort (R.flammula) which thrives in wet places and can often be found growing with soft rush in unimproved habitats. The flowers look very similar to a buttercup, but it has spear-shaped leaves.

READING ROOMS

In the 19th and early 20th century there was a trend for the better off in society, to provide the means to try and ‘improve’ their local workforce i.e. the not so well off. Rather than people gathering in public houses to drink, debauch and mutter – the idea instead was to provide an opportunity for social, moral, intellectual and spiritual improvement for the local community. ‘…the more he knows, the less hasty, the less violent, and the more correct will be his judgment and opinions’ (from the Manchester Spectator 1849).

The philanthropic benefactors would be local landowners, local business people on the rise, new industrial entrepreneurs, and often the local Church including non-conformists e.g. the Methodists. Individuals or local committees of bigwigs, would gift their local community a Reading Room, first in growing towns and then also in rural villages. Any local community who wanted to think themselves liberal and progressive needed a Reading Room. The provision of a building where men could read instructive newspapers, educational periodicals and improving books promoted the popular ideas of self-improvement and self-help. Reading Rooms were the forerunners of public libraries. It wasn’t all reading – they also hosted useful lectures and respectable entertainments as well.

There are a number of Reading Room buildings remaining in the North York Moors, some still used as community buildings and others converted. It is interesting that a number are clearly connected to industrial populations such as that in Rosedale, but others are located in more rural communities such as Boltby, Lastingham and Runswick Bay.

ROBERT HESELTINE HUDSON

“Rarely does a case, even of murder, excite such an intense interest as that which has been taken by the general public in the charge against Robert Heseltine Hudson, of the wilful murder of his wife and child on Roper Moor, near Helmsley, on the 8th of June last.”

 “Accused was accommodated with a chair and remained remarkably quiet throughout the trial. He certainly had not the look of a murderer. There was nothing dreadful in the dark sallow countenance, nor repulsive in the black hair, eyebrows, and bearded face, with cultivated moustache trimmed in imperial fashion. The eye was steady and the body restful, and an expression of ease and indifference seemed reflected in a faint smile upon the lips which looked more natural than feigned. Hudson, for some reason, had practically nothing to say. He sat throughout the evidence without manifesting any perceptible distress and it was impossible to judge of the man’s inner consciousness from his appearance…What did seem probably to many observers was that Hudson had quietly resigned himself to his fate…”

From the Yorkshire Gazetteer Saturday 27 July 1895

Robert Hudson’s family was from near Helmsley, he went to school at nearby East Moors. His parents then moved the family to Darlington and as an adult Robert Hudson worked in Liverpool, Sheffield and Nottingham. However in May 1895 Hudson, then a house furnisher’s assistant, brought his wife Kate and their son Heseltine who was not yet one, back to where he had started from. They lodged in a house on Bondgate, Helmsley.

Robert Hudson took his family out for walks and drives in the local countryside – it was reported that Mrs Hudson complained that the places they visited were lonely. On 8 June Mr Hudson returned but his wife and child did not. He told his landlady that they had gone to visit an aunt in Hovingham. Hudson then swiftly disappeared on the 3.39 train to York. Suspicions were aroused resulting in a search of the lonely local countryside. After a while a recently dug hole was found under a clump of trees on Roppa Moor. The bodies of Kate and Heseltine Hudson were found together in the hole covered by a thin layer of soil. Their throats had been cut with a carving knife; Mrs Hudson’s hands were terribly injured suggesting she had struggled to stay the knife.

Hudson was tracked down to Birmingham and arrested, he was brought back first to Helmsley to be committed for trial and then taken to York Crown Court. The evidence was pretty overwhelming. Hudson had bought a spade from a Helmsley ironmonger and was seen cycling about with the spade tied to his bicycle. The spade was later found on Roppa Moor. A local man had come across the hole on Roppa Moor a couple of days before it was used as a grave. Various other local people identified him as a man they had seen acting suspiciously on and around Roppa Moor. Soon after the ‘disappearance’ of his wife Robert Hudson was advertising for a new wife “Bachelor, tall, dark, age 27, wishes to meet with lady of some means, with a view to early marriage”. There was also a pocket book in which Mr Hudson had written on 15 June – “One week from the saddest event in my life, at ten to one o’clock, and I am living yet”. The jury considered their verdict for c. 6 minutes. Robert Hudson was found guilty.

Robert Hudson did not directly confess to the murders, but he did blame bad company for his predicament and expressed repentance. He was hanged at York Castle on 13 August 1895.

ROMANS (1st to 4th centuries AD)

Following on the heels of trading links the Roman invasion and then entrenchment across most of Britain  started with temporary military installations and infrastructure including connecting roads to maintain control. This was overtaken with more permanent military bases, as well as the establishment of towns, industrial centres and civilian farmsteads. Romanisation of society was backed up with military might, but at the same time the lure of Roman luxuries, the value of Roman technologies, and the promise of Roman advancement and power very much helped its spread.

Unlike the Iron Age native population, the Romans weren’t interested in living on the moors part of the North York Moors. Most Roman related remains are along the southern edge, close-ish to Malton and York which were major Roman towns. There are a number of minor “villa” complexes (Romano-British farmsteads) at Beadlam, Spaunton and Blandsby Park and the remains of two forts and a military camp at ‘Cawthorn Camps’.

Romans at Cawthorn, 2010. Copyright NYMNPA.

There is another early fort at Lease Rigg in the north of the North York Moors. This site includes ramparts, barracks, stables, a granary, a praetorium (Officer quarters), and a principia (main building for admin and religion). The forts at Cawthorn and at Lease Rigg are connected by Wheeldale Road/Wades Causeway, which is recorded as a Roman road. Because of the lack of quality it has been suggested it isn’t actually a Roman road at all.

The North York Moors Historic Environment Record includes a number of Roman finds including pottery, tessalie (mosaic tiles), coins, armilla (metal armband), beads, weights, pins, and altars.

There are also a number of Roman signal stations along the coastal cliffs from the 4th century. The best example in the North York Moors is at Goldsborough. There might also have been a signal station at Ravenscar – the evidence for this is an engraved dedication stone identified in the 18th century, but this might have been brought onto the site from somewhere else after the Roman period. The stone reads IVSTINIANVSPP VINDICIANVS MASSIERIV(RR)/(PR) MCASTRVMFECIT A….0. (JUSTINIANUS COMMANDER  VINDICIANUS…PRAEFECT OF SOLDIERS BUILT THIS TOWER AND FORT FROM GROUND LEVEL). Signal stations were built towards the end of the Roman period to guard against the growing threat of Angles and Saxons from the sea. By this time people on the edge of the Roman Empire were having to look after themselves because as the empire contracted it was clear no one was going to come and rescue them. The end of the Roman period fizzled out slowly. Often the new invaders would use the same sites, carefully chosen for their resources and setting. For example there is evidence that Cawthorn Camps was subsequently re-used as an Anglian settlement.

Previously on the North York Moors A to Z … A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O , P, Q

Scrub, scub, glorious scub

Richard Baines – Turtle Dove Project Officer

If you are a farmland bird – such as a Turtle Dove or a Song Thrush, looking to protect your nest from predators and other disturbance – where should you nest? If you have any sense you will be looking for a dense patch of protective scrub or a large hedge (slightly more organised scrub) safe from dangerous raptor talons or avaricious eyes.

Unfortunately this type of vegetation containing older stands of Hawthorn and Blackthorn is becoming increasingly rare in the countryside due to creeping development, agricultural intensification and ‘tidying up’. Scrub can often be assumed to be a problem which needs to be removed. It has been an undervalued habitat in many conservation schemes over the years with other more showy habitats taking precedent.

The North Yorkshire Turtle Dove Project is wanting to improve the appreciation of this fantastic habitat.

Scrub is very important for Turtle Doves. Their delicate nests are often built within 2 metres of the ground in a dense tangle of thorns and twigs. They need this structure to reach the ground to feed. Stock grazing under such a habitat can remove any value to many birds such as Turtle Doves. In the winter scrub is a fantastic habitat for roosting birds such as Long-eared Owls. These magnificent birds are also looking for protection from disturbance and somewhere to have a daytime nap.

Last week we started work on our first community reserve for Turtle Doves at Sawdon near Scarborough. We were out with the Sawdon Community Nature Reserve Group and a very hard working Community Payback team. We planted a mixture of Hawthorn, Blackthorn and Hazel to create a thicket of scrub for the future. Luckily the planting day was sunny and warm with many birds singing in the trees around us. Amongst the appreciative audience were Song Thrush, Tree Sparrow and Yellowhammers who will all be able to benefit from the effort made to increase their local nesting habitat. Future plans for this site include pond restoration and a Turtle Dove flower meadow.

Creating our first community reserve for Turtle Doves - at Sawdon. Copyright NYMNPA.

Richard and Katie, helping to create our first community reserve for Turtle Doves - Yederick Spinney, Sawdon. Copyright NYMNPA.

Tales over Tea – upcoming Land of Iron events

UPDATE – Because so many people turned up to the first talk in March – we’ve had to change to a bigger venue. So please note that the next three talks (11 April, 30 May and 18 July) will be at Danby Village Hall (Dale End, Danby, Whitby, YO21 2LZ).

NYMNPA Event Poster - REVISEDThe Land of Iron team are delighted to be able to present a series of talks by acclaimed historian Malcolm Bisby, widely considered to be the national expert on the ironstone industry in Rosedale. This is a free four-part lecture series over the next few months, based at the Moors National Park Centre in Danby. The first talk will take place on Wednesday 14 March starting at 1 pm.

 

Historian Malcom Bisby. Copyright Malcolm Bisby.

Historian Malcolm Bisby, well known in the North York Moors and an expert on the ironstone mining industry in the local area.

Positioned at the heart of the North York Moors, the Rosedale railway played a fundamental role in delivering the ironstone from the nearby dales and hills onto the wider transport network and to the iron works in the north east of England. From the opening of the first mines in the 1850s to the lowering of the last locomotive down the Ingleby Incline in 1929, Rosedale played host to the impressive and ground-breaking 14-mile long railway alongside a number of important mining sites.

Early 20th Century photograph of Ingleby Station. Property of Malcolm Bisby.

The locomotive approaches Ingleby Station. As well as carrying the ironstone from the mining sites to the iron works, the engines that used the Rosedale railway branch line also connected new and old communities together.

The series promises to be fascinating opportunity. Malcolm will expertly introduce the Rosedale area and explain the importance that the mining industry had on the local communities and population. The ironstone industry changed the area fundamentally, the effects of which can still be seen in this magnificent landscape today.

Come along to the Moors Centre for the first talk on 14 March – no need to book. There will be a wealth of historic photographs of the ironstone mining industry in operation alongside a whole host of wonderful stories, all complemented with afternoon tea and cakes.

NYMNPA Event Poster

If you would like further information on upcoming Land of Iron activities and events – please see our Land of Iron website or email us.

Land of Iron logos

Jambs, lintels, sills and grants

Clair Shields – Planning Policy & Conservation Officer

The Civic Amenities Act 1967 brought in the idea of Conservation Areas in reaction to wide spread uninhibited redevelopment. Conservation Areas are designated by the local Planning Authority (outside London) because of their ‘special architectural and historic interest’ – the aim is to maintain what makes these areas special and conserve the interest into the future.

Conservation Areas are found all over the country. In the North York Moors, most of the Conservation Areas are the centres of rural villages. Not all our villages have designated Conservation Areas.

Article 4 Directions set out what changes to features need permission which elsewhere might be permitted development. These changes can seem small but the impact of lots of little changes can be the gradual and unintended loss of the village character.

Alongside the Historic Buildings Grant which helps maintain individual listed buildings, the National Park Authority operates a Conservation Area Enhancement Grant. The grant can help householders maintain the local historic character as well as maintaining the integrity of their houses.

Here are a few examples of recent Conservation Area Enhancement Grants which highlight some of the work we in the Building Conservation Team have been up to reinstating lost historic window and door details. Sometimes it’s not so obvious which are before and after – the local historic character can be quite specific.

If you have a North York Moors traditional property within one of the 38 Conservation Areas with an Article 4 Direction and you’re interested in carrying out similar work –  please get in touch

Why why why the Rye?

Anne-Louise Orange – Ryevitalise Programme Manager

We’re continuing to develop our stage two application for submission in October to the Heritage Lottery Fund to support the Ryevitalise Landscape Partnership Scheme.

We need to explain and evidence why the upper Rye catchment is such a special area for people, wildlife, and the rich diversity of habitats the wealth of species rely on; and why it needs support to secure its future.

To help us we are delighted to have recently appointed the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust Consultancy to undertake audience development and interpretation consultancy work for the Partnership. WWT Consulting are pleased too and have written their own blog post which you can read here.

We’re keen to hear from you if you have ideas and views about the catchment – please get in touch directly or complete our survey. Your ideas and views will be used to inform the delivery phase of Ryevitalise which, subject to a successful bid to the Heritage Lottery Fund, will commence spring 2019.

View of the Rye. Copyright Claire Flanagan, Environment Agency.

 

YACking

We now have a Young Archaeologists’ Club for the North York Moors and wider area – the Moors and Valleys YAC.

YAC logo

This is a great new opportunity for this area and the local archaeology scene. The aim is to engage young people with the historic environment all around them and inspire the next generation of budding archaeologists. The club is for young people aged 8 and 16 years of age, and it will host a series of events and sessions across North Yorkshire, Teesside and Cleveland; exploring everything from skeletons and pottery, to stratigraphy and henges.

It kicked off on the first Saturday in February with some rummaging through ‘rubbish’ and some fabulous finds drawing. 

Have a look at our blog post on the Young Archaeologists’s Club website to find out more about what happened (involving expensive jewellery and hamster treats) and what’s going to be happening next. Or if you think you might want to get involved…