Keeping hold of history

Jo Collins – Volunteer and Communities Officer

If you are standing anywhere in the North York Moors National Park you will never be more than 1 mile from a known archaeological site.
Help care for this heritage.

We are very excited that we’ve been successful in securing a grant of more than £170,000 to support a new project – Monuments for the Future.  This will help secure the future of historic monuments in the North York Moors and increase public understanding of their significance.

The funds have been awarded by Historic England, who supported the National Park’s previous Monument Management Scheme from 2009 to 2018.

There are tens of thousands of monuments and other archaeological sites in the National Park. Currently 842 of these have been ‘scheduled’, this means they are nationally important and protected in law*.

History and its monuments are embedded in the landscape of the North York Moors.

Young Ralph Cross. Copyright Simon Hirst, NYMNPA.

Young Ralph Cross still stands upright by the road on Rosedale Head. The horizon is spotted with funerary round barrows (marked as tumuli or tumulus on maps), and crossed with ancient dykes thought to mark the boundaries of territories. Look closely and evidence of the lives of our hunter gatherer ancestors can be seen on rocks decorated with ‘cup and ring’ marks. Occasionally flint tools or arrowheads are still found on the moors (recorded as a ‘findspot’ on the HER map**). And of course there are the more recent remnants of history – castles, abbeys, trods, iron works . . . far too many types to mention but all worthy of our care and attention.

Key to the new Monuments for the Future project is providing training and support for an increased numbers of volunteers. We want to encourage and build a sense of ownership for the monuments amongst local communities; engaging people, young and old, with the heritage they have on their doorstep.

So we are looking for people to join our volunteer survey team to look after our Scheduled Monuments. Volunteers working in pairs or individually, with the kind permission of landowners, will visit archaeological monuments to check on their condition. Problems are commonly caused by bracken or erosion and the volunteer surveys are vital to identify issues in order to target practical management which can help sustain the monuments.

To get the most from this voluntary role you’ll need an enthusiasm for archaeology/history, a reasonable level of fitness, and an ability to read a map or else an ability to team up with someone who can. Some sites are easy enough to find but some can be more difficult, volunteers can choose the level of challenge! Training days are planned for August and September this year. Please do get in touch if you are interested in being a volunteer or you just want to find out more – we would love to hear from you.

* The National Heritage List for England (NHLE) is the only official, up to date, register of all nationally protected historic buildings and sites in England – listed buildings, scheduled monuments, protected wrecks, registered parks and gardens, and battlefields.

** This is a map of the North York Moors Historic Environment Record. It’s a handy way to check out our claim that ‘If you are standing anywhere in the North York Moors National Park you will never be more than 1 mile from an archaeological site’. Please let me know if you can catch me out!

Local communities

Alasdair Fagan – Woodland Creation Officer

My job here at the National Park Authority means that I get the opportunity to be out and about in the North York Moors and get to places that most don’t get the opportunity to see. These hidden places are special for all sorts of reasons, in particular I get the chance to see some extraordinary woodlands – I admit I might be a little biased.

Recently we were out monitoring a woodland planting project near Castleton which meant we had to trek through a small existing woodland to get there. This was a combination of well-developed riparian (wet) flood plain woodland along river margins, wet marshy grassland filled with flowering plants and ancient woodland remnants creeping up the valley sides including oak, birch, hazel, alder and willow. Many of the woodland spring flowers were still in bloom and the woods were a lush green and bursting with insect and bird life.

Ancient Semi Natural Woodland site. Copyright Alasdair Fagan, NYMNPA.

As we approached the edge of this woodland I noticed something wriggling in the grass – it was a slow worm! Coming across this legless lizard species (Anguis fragilis) was a first time for me. Obviously I wouldn’t usually pick up/disturb wildlife but in this case I took the opportunity to move the slow worm to the cover of an old iron sheet as they are quite high up on the menu for many predatory species (birds, adders, badgers etc.).

Slow worm - copyright Alasdair Fagan, NYMNPA.

On the way back as we ducked, scrambled and tramped back through the same woodland I almost tripped over what can only be described as a large mound of leaf litter on the edge of a clearing. As I looked a little closer I noticed that the surface of the mound was moving – it was alive with wood ants! I was surprised to see them here as. I previously worked in Scotland and had always associated wood ants with more northern forest habitats. But they were definitely wood ants and they are surely an indicator that this particular woodland is in good ecological health.

Close up of a Northern hairy wood ant. Copyright Alasdair Fagan, NYMNPA.

Northern Hairy Wood ants (Formica lugubris) are a species of wood ant found in Scotland and in only two areas in England – the Peak District and the North York Moors. They are a fascinating species – I’m no expert yet but here are a few facts about our internationally important Northern Hairy Wood Ants:

  • The Northern Hairy Wood Ant currently has a near-threatened conservation status.
  • Northern Hairy Wood Ants ‘farm’ sap-sucking aphids (that favour oak and birch) for their honeydew. They gently stroke the backs of the aphids which then produce the sugar rich liquid in exchange for protection, and the ants use it to feed their young.
  • The ants take specific roles in the aphid farming process including; ‘shepherds’ who collect the honeydew, ‘transporters’ that move the honeydew to their nest, ‘guards’ that protect their aphids from competitors, and ‘scouts’ that search out new aphid colonies.
  • They employ a polydomous (many homes) nesting strategy whereby they have a number of nest mounds which operate as a single colony. The founding of additional nests allows for the expansion of the colony allowing it to grow and capitalise on new foraging and feeding opportunities spreading out through suitable habitat. If a smaller outlying nest is attacked or in danger then it will be abandoned and the inhabitants will return to the central nest.
  • Similar to other ants foraging workers leave pheromone trails, to good nectar sites or to groups of aphids, which direct other foragers to these valuable resources. The trails can persist for months.
  • The nest mounds of Northern Hairy Wood ants provide accomodating habitat for other invertebrates too. These include a variety of beetle species as well as the Shining guest ant (Formicoxenus nitidulus). This ant species lives within wood ant nesting colonies, accepting food from the host species and establishing its own discrete nests inside hollow twigs within the larger nest, raising its own brood. The Shining guest ant is a species of conservation interest, a priority species of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan and listed as ‘vulnerable’ on the IUCN red list.

Northern hairy wood ant nest - if you look carefully you can just make out the well camouflaged orange/black coloured ants. Copyright Alasdair Fagan, NYMNPA.

The intricacies of woodland ecology are often complex and astounding. My job means I work on woodland planting and creation and by the very nature of the timespan of trees I know that I’m likely never to see these new woodlands in their future glory. Therefore it’s very important to me to keep a perspective, looking at woodlands at a landscape and spatial scale and considering woodlands over their likely lifetime. Woodland visits like this one are what inspire me to want to create new woodlands and plant more trees, to establish the woodlands of the future.

If you might be interested in creating woodland in the North York Moors and would like more information about opportunities please contact me or call on 01439 772700.

Bees’ needs

Aside

Following on from Abi’s bee blog post a fortnight ago, it’s now Bees’ Needs Week 2018.

Top 5 Actions that people can take for bees and other pollinators – you don’t need to be a farmer or a major landowner:

  • Grow more plants
  • Let your garden go wild (even just a bit of it)
  • Leave your lawn to grow a bit more
  • Live and let live when it comes to pollinators and their homes
  • Avoid using pesticides

Wild bee on Field Scabious

A New Kiln for Rosedale: a poetic perspective – Part 2

David Mennear – Land of Iron Administration Assistant

A Brief Historic Note

The second and final part of this anonymous but momentous poem, transcribed by the local historian Malcolm Bisby, describes the inherent industrial appeal of ironstone production in the North York Moors and the bustling economy that it brought.  Picking up where Part 1 finished, two years have passed since the collapse and the kilns which have replaced the experimental kiln at Rosedale burn brightly in a never-ending production cycle. They roast (calcine) the ironstone, mined close by, which is then sent on its way to Teesside via the railway.

MB299 Rosedale Railway, East side c. 1903. Locomotive with loaded wagons, 8 in total for Ingleby Incline top was the maximum load. The derelict cottages were known as High Gill Cottages and probably once housed miners and their families. They were later used as farm storage for straw but have since been demolished.

The physical remains of the kilns today, at Bank Top and at Rosedale East, are tangible reminders of the way populations alter the landscape. Although the remains are quiet today, they once thronged with working people (including children) each with their job of work to do as this poem so clearly reminds the modern reader.

The poem ends on an eerily prophetic note as the poet notes that, as long as the furnaces burn, there will be an industry present along with ‘peace and plenty’. The ironstone industry within the North York Moors burned fiercely but briefly, largely coming to the end of ironstone mining and calcining processing by 1929.

After the poem we provide a unique insight into the industrial design of the experimental kilns, and those that replaced it, provided by Malcolm himself.

 ‘Discussion between two friends on the New Kiln while building, noting a few of its’ misfortunes, 1865’

Transcribed by Malcolm Bisby

43. And if this plan at first they’d tried,
T’would saved them much expense.
For two full years have passed away
Since first it did commence.

44. But part of her is burning now,
By day as well as night,
And men and boys are there engaged
To keep this kiln alright.

45. There’s men to tip, and boys to spray,
And coolers there likewise,
There’s red and black men I do see,
And men of every size.

46.There’s horses, and their drivers too
Are ready at a call –
A oft I hear the drivers say
Their wages are too small.

47. The calcine men work down below,
They’re men that look so funny,
And there’s no doubt but all those men
Work very hard for their money.

48. And far under the ground they are,
Beneath this rugged hill,
The miners – and if not for them,
The works would soon stand still.

49. The miners from all men are known,
In the Beer House they talk louder,
And while at work they have to use
Both iron steel and powder.

50. And many think that mining is
A very easy trade
But for their work the miners are
Not much more than half paid.

51. And deputies there are also
To see that all is right,
To prop and timber is their work
The mines to keep alright.

52. With axe and saw they pop about
To see who wants a balk,
And so they hear all kinds of news –
They love a bit of talk.

53. And platelayers there are at work,
Laying inroads and points.
They go round with hammer and nails
To straighten all foul joints.

54. If the platelayers go away,
There soon is something up.
“A wagon’s off the road,” they shout,
“Come, bring t’big bar and sup”

55. We have a furnace in the mines
Which burns both night and day,
For the good of miners when at work
To draw powder smoke away.

56. And two old men attend the fire –
We call them both “Old Dads,”
I wish you like wise for to know
We have some small trap lads.

57. We likewise have two noble men,
In the mines to see fair play,
To see that all men get their rights
There’s one there night and day.

58. Dog Whippers they are called by trade,
The Horse Drivers well they know
They are to tell them what to do,
And where they have to go.

59. The manager comes round to see
That all things do keep right,
I’m sure that he’s got much to do,
In keeping all things straight.

60. So now you’ve heard what there’s to do
Beneath the rugged hill,
But if I was to mention all,
I many a page could fill

Rosedale Miners. Rosedale Local History Society.

61. To bring my story to a close
On the works no longer dwell,
The weighmen I must mention now
Before I bid farewell.

62. Those are the men we have to trust,
Masters on them depend,
And if they’ll do what’s right and just
They’ll never want a friend.

63. I took a walk the other day
Once more this kiln to see,
And to find this kiln completed,
Delight it was to me.

64. I long have wished to hear the news,
That I have heard today,
The men say she is finished,
The boys they shout, “Hooray.”

65. Great Praise is due to the workmen,
For workmanship and skill
For everyone that see her say
She is a noble kiln.

66. All praise unto the gentlemen,
Who the money had to pay,
Some said that she would beggar them
But they have won the day.

67. For now she’s burning briskly,
Some hundred tons a day,
‘Midst all the expense there has been,
She’s sure to pay her way.

68. And long may she keep burning on,
Our gentlemen to cheer,
And while she’s doing well for them
The workmen need not fear.

69. Our prospect’s bright for future years,
There’s work for young and old.
When you’ve heard all I’ve got to say,
There’s still one half untold.

70. And long may peace and plenty reign,
Within this lovely dale,
When the Poet’s tongue lies silent,
In death’s cold chilling vale.

Rosedale East Kilns, mid 20th century?

Malcolm Bisby’s historical commentary

This fascinating poem clearly gives some useful clues as to the construction date and design changes relating to the so called “New Kilns” (or ‘Iron Kilns’). The term ‘New’ used in this case could also mean ‘of different design’ – for these kilns appear to have been a unique, one-off experiment – doubtless hoping for a more efficient calcining process in terms of fuel cost, through put rate of more uniform heat distribution.

However, this very crude system was doomed to be phased out by the gradual development of the Gjers design of calcining kiln (development of this design of kiln began around 1865) – compromising a large upright cylinder: constructed of wrought iron plating, internally lined with a refractory brick lining.

This design of kiln was by far more efficient and easier to operate and was usually sited adjacent to the blast furnaces that they were supplying. The claimed coal to ‘raw’ ironstone ratio was one ton coal to 25 tonnes of raw ironstone.

Malcolm will be presenting the final part of his lecture series (‘Tales over Tea‘) on the Rosedale Ironstone Industry at 2pm, Wednesday 18 July at Danby Village Hall.

Evaluating bees

Abi Duffy – Conservation Trainee

One of the sounds of summer is the recognisable buzzing of busy bees. Bees are a beautiful symbol of British summertime, but much more importantly are one of the best performing pollinators vital for pollinating plants and crops across the world.

Bee facts:

  • Of the 270 species of bee to have been recorded within Britain, 27 of these are bumble bee species and there’s only 1 honey bee species.
  • Wild bees pollinate two thirds of British crops whilst cultivated honey bees pollinate the remaining third.
  • The exact economic value of pollinators in the UK is uncertain due to small numbers of studies but is estimated at hundreds of millions of pounds (DEFRA).

I’ve been wanting to learn more about bees and how to identify different species, I was fortunate enough to travel to the Field Studies Council’s Malham Tarn Residential Centre at the start of June to take part in a Steven Falk Bee Workshop. Steven wrote the ‘Field Guide to the Bees of Great Britain and Ireland’ which we used throughout the workshop, making use of the guide’s dichotomous keys and illustrations and photographs of the different bee species.

It was a really interesting course – we focused on the habitats around Malham Tarn and the bees that can be found there. The habitats we visited included nationally important calcareous (limestone) grassland and fen/mire (wet grassland) habitats which are part of the Malham-Arnecliffe Site of Special Scientific Interest. We saw fabulous plants such as Bird’s Eye Primrose, Butterwort, Northern Marsh Orchid and Water Avens which was particularly popular amongst the bees.

We identified thirteen different species of bee using these habitats. These included the Tree Bumblebee (Bombus hypnorum), a Red-tailed Bumblebee queen (Bombus lapidarius), the Bilberry Bumblebee (Bombus monticola) and the Moss Carder Bee (Bombus muscorum). To ID accurately we learnt to catch the bee carefully with a net and then place it into a container to get a closer look at the head, thorax and abdomen to look for distinguishing features. After a few minutes the bee is released back where it was found.

Declines in bee populations are due to a dangerous combination of reasons which together add up to a growing crisis – reasons include climate changes, creeping urbanisation, agricultural practices including using pesticides, a decline in habitats including the loss of meadows – unfortunately 97% of wildflower meadows in Britain have been lost since 1937.

Bees need continuous legume-rich flower habitat to sustain populations. Lots of bee species live in large colonies and need enough flowers in their surrounding habitat to sustain up to 400 worker bees over a season so that a colony can successfully produce new males and queens. Remaining species rich grasslands like meadows have become isolated across the landscape as areas shrink and contract, such habitats need to be better linked by creating corridors and stepping stones for bees to move through and between and so be able to make best use of the nectar (and pollen) producing plants. Like many other species, bees benefit from ecological networks where semi natural habitats are biggerbetter and more joined up (Making Room for Nature, 2010, John Lawton)As well as the species rich grassland areas themselves there are other useful linear versions such as species rich road verges, arable farmland flower margins, and native species hedgerows which can all act as useful corridors for pollinators. Domestic gardens with bee friendly plants can act as useful refuelling stops/stepping stone habitats. 

The Pollinator Monitoring Scheme brings together experts and the public to monitor pollinator populations over time. Anyone can join in with the Flower-Insect Timed Count, which is reassuringly complex.

If you want to help build up a national picture of bee populations then The Great British Bee Count continues until the 30 June this year. There is an App to help you to ID and record the different bee species you see. Sightings will help the experts to understand how bees are faring and results feed back into the Pollinator Monitoring Scheme.

Shaped by people

A new leaflet has been published which highlights the historic environments of British National Parks –Our Historic Environment: special landscapes shaped by people‘. The number one purpose of the National Parks is to ‘conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage’ of their areas.

The cultural heritage reference is not just an add on, a poor cousin to nature. As well as shaping the physical landscape cultural heritage is fundamental to providing a sense of place which is just as important in making a National Park special.

Helmsley Castle - copyright English Heritage

Whereas in British National Parks sometimes it’s easy to overlook the influence of people on the natural environment, whereas the historic environment is all about human impact and residue. Here on the ground in the North York Moors it’s not possible to disentangle the natural and historic environments – a 400 year old veteran tree is a natural feature, but it is there because of woodland management in the past; rare Ring Ouzels breed in Rosedale because of the presence of industrial structures left over from the 19th century; the large conifer forests of the North York Moors are there because of a national policy of afforestation after World War 1.

East Kilns, Rosedale - copyright NYMNPA

Across the country the most important cultural heritage sites are protected through designation by Historic England, Cadw and Historic Environment Scotland. But there are 1000s and 1000s of other significant sites, structures, finds and features, which National Park Authorities are working to conserve on their patch, alongside the protected sites. By building up research, increasing understanding, and informing interpretation National Park Authorities seek to connect and engage people, both locals and visitors, with their heritage and history.

Close up of drystone wall with engraved date - copyright NYMNPA

Since the last Ice Age – the flint tools, hearth deposits, cup and ring marked stones of the subsisting Mesolithic and Neolithic periods; the pottery, earthwork dykes, burial mounds of the ritualistic Bronze and Iron Ages; the forts, settlements, castles of centuries of invasion/assimilation of Romans, Angles, Saxons, Vikings, and then Normans; the abbeys, cruck houses, ridge and furrow of the striving middle ages; the alum works, musket balls and ‘witch posts’ of the religiously provocative Tudor, Stuart and Civil War period; the designed landscapes, water races, stationary engines and railway lines of the industrious 18th and 19th centuries; the radar stations, tank tracks, gas works of the technological 20th century – the North York Moors landscape retains the physical evidence of history (the what and where). Along with documents, maps and other primary sources this provides an historic environment framework, with lots of room left for investigation, imagination and involvement into the how and why.

Coastal archaeology - copyright NYMNPA

State of our Soils (and Wonderful Worms)

Sam Newton – Natural Heritage Trainee, Land of Iron

Charles Darwin was an undoubted genius, according to most people’s definition – so it should come as no surprise that he was interested in earthworms. He even wrote a book with the catchy title The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the action of worms, with observations on their habitats.

Cartoon of Charles Darwin in Punch magazine (1881) - he studied worms for many years, even playing music to them!

Earthworms are fundamental. They are ecosystem engineers – a term associated with important ecological outputs, which can often be stalked by controversy because of the affects caused e.g. Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber). However, everyone can get behind earthworms; they are the only species playing a significant role in pedoturbation and are a major player in pedogenesis.

What are pedoturbation and pedogenesis? Well, they’re words we should all know. They describe the process of mixing between soil horizons resulting in healthy homogenization, and the formation of soils through biogeochemical processes.

Organic rich woodland soil. Copyright Alasdair Fagan, NYMNPA.

Soil is the unconsolidated material on the top level of the earth in temperate climes. In the UK most plants grow in soil. Our soils are under pressure from erosion/loss, compaction and decline in organic matter. In the 2015 bestselling book, What Nature Does for Britain by Tony Juniper, estimated the annual cost from soil degradation is between £900 million and £1.4 billion, while studies suggest soils will be too degraded for production within around 100 harvests. The need for solutions is urgent.

These aren't sandbanks - this is the sediment (soil) runoff from the Thames, as seen from the International Space Station in 2014

Soil health targets are included in the Government’s new 25 Year Environment Plan. Further national measures are planned through legislation during 2018 to manage all soils sustainably, including devising a soil health index, and updating guidance on crop establishment and optimal tillage choice.

Earthworms are crucial for tackling these problems and maintaining the health of soils. Still little is known about earthworms, despite Darwin’s efforts. We know there are 29 species in the UK, split into four groups: composters living in organic rich vegetation, epigeics living amongst leaf litter, endogeics living in the soil, and anecics living in vertical burrows. They all eat (and so recycle) decaying material, help drainage and aeration, and are food for many other species (so crucial for biodiversity). The fact that all four groups and all the species have varying ecology enhances their benefits to the reducing of erosion, compaction and the loss of organic matter, therefore benefiting the entire ecosystem – including us.

It will be very important to increase our understanding of distributions and ecology of each earthworm species, to help us to properly conserve and encourage worms to be a vital partner in such a time of soil health concern.

What is known about worms...all earthworms are hermaphrodites - mating head-to-tail by covering themselves in mucus and exchanging sperm. From Science Learning Hub.

The Earthworm Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has information regarding the recording of earthworms, identifying different species, and further facts on their biology and ecology.

The British Society of Soil Science is supporting the advancement of soil science in the UK. The more we understand the resource the more we can do to conserve and enhance it.

Feed the Birds

Sam Newton – Natural Heritage Trainee, Land of Iron

Ring Ouzel (Turdus torquatus) are a member of the thrush family, and an annual migrant to the UK from Northern Africa. They look similar to Blackbirds (Turdus merula)  but they are slightly smaller and have a striking white neck band which helps identify them (torquatus means wearing a collar). In the UK Ring Ouzels breed in upland areas of Scotland, northern Wales, and north and south west England; hence another name they have – Mountain Blackbird. They can also be seen as they come into and leave the country along the southern and eastern coast.

Male Ring Ouzel - copyright RSPB

Ring Ouzel are a UK Red List species because of their historical population decline – an an estimated 58% population decline from 1988-91 to 1999, and 43% range decline from 1968-72 to 2008-11. This means the birds are endangered in the UK, and are therefore of particular conservation importance. Action is required to try and maintain our population.

Within the North York Moors, local volunteers have identified Rosedale as an important spot for the birds. They’ve studied the population here in detail for the last 18 years.

The Land of Iron Landscape Partnership Scheme has become involved with the aim of improving the local habitats, so helping to ensure Ring Ouzel persists in a landscape whose natural heritage has been shaped by its industrial heritage. It is suggested that the remains of industrial structures in Rosedale provide the crags and gullies that the birds prefer to nest in.

Rosedale landscape. Copyright Tom Mutton, NYMNPA.

A factor identified as a reason for national Ring Ouzel decline has been diet, which is mainly made up of invertebrates and berries. The red berries from the Rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia) ripen from July into the autumn and are particularly important prior to migration in September when the birds need as much nutrition as possible for the long journey ahead. Within Rosedale, existing Rowan (also known as Mountain Ash) is located on the steep moorland edge – less accessible for sheep grazing, and not burnt as part of moorland management. However, many are now veterans, showing that there has been little natural regeneration recently.

Another view over Rosedale. The dead tree highlights the lack of natural regeneration around it. Copyright NYMNPA.

So with advice from the Rosedale Ring Ouzel volunteer monitors along with support and assistance from the landowner, gamekeepers and grazing tenants; the National Park’s Volunteers and Apprentices have been out planting. It took a while because they were working in some pretty wild weather at the beginning of the year but they eventually managed to plant 150 Rowan trees either in small exclosures or as single trees. These new trees will help to provide the local Ring Ouzels with food into the future.

A small number of aged Rowans surrounded by one of the small exclosures and some of the single scattered trees. Copyright Sam Newton, NYMNPA.

The birds themselves have just arrived back in Rosedale to breed this year.

Have a listen to the BBC’s Tweet of the Day

Starting out in the past

Anna Chapman – Student Placement, Land of Iron Landscape Partnership Scheme

I am a first-year undergraduate studying at Exeter University reading History. Public History is one of my core modules; it focuses on the presentation of historical knowledge into the public sphere and maintaining the efficient and ethical management of heritage. For this module I have to undertake a work place to learn the day to day business of managing a heritage site. The North York Moors National Park with heritage sites across the Park area seemed a natural fit for my placement and the Land of Iron team were kind enough to take me on. With my placement being only a short 40 hours, the team arranged a well packed and varied set of tasks around their National Lottery funded Landscape Partnership Scheme.

Anna sorting finds by material type. Copyright NYMNPA.

The first day here I worked alongside Kim Devereux-West (Land of Iron Cultural Heritage Assistant) at the National Park Authority’s Castleton Depot. We were sorting artefacts from the community archaeology excavations carried out in 2016 and 2017, by material type. I came across a lot of interesting pieces, but if I had to choose one in particular I would have to mention the poison bottles, usually in good condition, but what struck me was how common they seemed to be.

Some of the few none poison bottle finds. Copyright NYMNPA.

Later that day once the fog and rain had cleared we ventured up to visit the Rosedale East ironstone kilns and mines, and associated railway line. Having never been here before it was great to see such a unique and grand piece of heritage not only in its natural state, but also to see the work being done through Land of Iron to maintain the safety of the deteriorating site for the public. The remainder of the kiln structures still held a remarkable presence in the beautiful landscape of the dale, I couldn’t help thinking what a wonderful juxtaposition the views from the top of the pastoral moors must have been against the fully functioning industrial sites in their time.

On the opposite side of the dale we visited the Bank Top calcining kilns. New interpretation boards in development will help provide a fresh and modern learning experience for the public, by telling the Land of Iron stories. As there is little historical record for the miners, kiln workers, railway men and their families, it’s important to convey the site’s known history and what happened there, to ensure these incredible heritage sites are recognised and appreciated.

Industrial heritage sites, Rosedale. Copyright NYMNPA.Having had the luxury of visiting sites along the moors, I also had the opportunity to help out in the Helmsley Headquarters. It was great to learn about the hugely varying roles in the Land of Iron team all working together to progress their Scheme. Having only ever been on the other side of National Park events and projects as a member of the public, it was extremely useful to gain an insight into the work behind the scenes.

I got involved with another aspect of the National Park and heritage, I got to help set up and help manage an event for the public. Malcolm Bisby, a local historian and power bank of knowledge on the Rosedale ironstone industry, is holding a series of talks – ‘Tales over Tea: the story of the Rosedale ironstone industry told over a four-part series‘. Part two of four took place at Danby Village Hall. The venue had had to be changed because his first talk at The Moors National Park Centre was so popular the rest have had to be moved to a larger venue. The previous event space held up to sixty and we were aiming to set up for around eighty. Despite this last-minute change of location and a lot of reliance on word of mouth, the turn out did not disappoint as the Village Hall filled up.  Malcolm gave a knowledgeable and engaging illustrated talk to the eager audience, who were also keen to get to speak to speak to him afterwards, showing how admired he is in the community. It was very useful for me to be able to see how much work it takes in setting up these kind of events and to meet so many enthusiastic people showing how worthwhile all the work is for community heritage.

On my final and very sunny day in Helmsley, I was working again at the Headquarter this time in the IT department with Sandra Kennish. I spent the day scanning published paperwork and entering the information into a database. It is really important to record and organise as much available data and sources as possible, and make this accessible in the future.

On Wednesday 18 April, ICOMOS celebrated the International Day for Monuments and Sites, whose establishment was approved by the 22nd UNESCO General Conference in 1983. The theme for this year was ‘Heritage for Generations’ and the events taking place were led by a group of chosen youth leadership who are emerging professionals in each of their countries. The events that took place were led by these groups using social media, and promoting the protection of cultural heritage with the hashtag #heritage4generations. If you use this hashtag when visiting a monument or event you can share why it may be important to you individually, as each human experience with heritage is different and unique. However, when each individual shares the story behind their monument or heritage, together with the global ICOMOS community, what starts as an individual experience of heritage becomes global, portraying the amazing variety of heritage and the effect it has collectively on culture across the globe. This social media movement is vastly important in encouraging the communication between generations and continuing conversations about heritage, so the cultural changes are documented from one generation to another creating an overall narrative for cultural heritage.

I’d like to thank all the staff at Helmsley for firstly fitting me into their busy schedules and looking after me so well, and secondly for teaching me so much about heritage that is right on my doorstep which before this placement I knew little about. I hope this isn’t my last time being involved in the heritage sector and look forward to visiting the National Park again in the future.